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Research Station 

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Agriculture 
Canada 



cover photo 

Charcoal drawing by Darlene Hay. 



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Text: Allan E. Smith 
Photography: Brian J. Hayden 



Research Branch 
Agriculture Canada 

Historical Series No. 15 
1981 



HISTORICAL SERIES No. 15, available from 

Information Services, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa K1 A 0C7 

© Minister of Supply and Services Canada 1 981 
Cat No. A54-2/15 E ISBN: 0-662-11613-5 
Printed 1981 2M-6:81 



Contents 



Preface 4 

Foreword 5 

Chapter 1 

The founding of the Regina 

Experimental Substation 1931, 

Chapter 2 

The early years 1931-1935, 9 

Chapter 3 

Hard times 1936-1945, 14 

Chapter 4 

The Postwar years 1945-1953, 

Chapter 5 

The Regina Experimental Farm 

1953-1962, 25 

Chapter 6 

The Regina Research Station 

1962-1981, 31 

Chapter 7 
Postscript 38 

Acknowledgments 41 

Appendix 42 



19 




Preface 



Three factors made the writing of 
Regina Research Station 1931-1981 
considerably easier than I had 
expected. 

The first factor was the small size 
of the station during its early years. 
As a substation, first of the Swift 
Current Experimental Station, then of 
the Indian Head Experimental Farm, 
Regina was essentially a summer sta- 
tion until about 1950, and the staff 
requirements were consequently 
small. 

The second factor was finding in 
the basement of the Indian Head 
Experimental Farm building most of 
the correspondence, pay sheets, in- 
voices, and work orders covering the 
Regina substation for the period 
1931-1949. This meant that the his- 
tory of the station and its employees 
could be charted with relative ease. 
Unfortunately, on becoming an inde- 
pendent station the files and cor- 
respondence were not kept and main- 
tained as carefully as they had been 
at Indian Head. 



The third factor was the availability 
of station and government reports, 
the report on the history of weed 
control undertaken by the research 
station and written by Mr. E. S. 
Molberg on his retirement, and of 
course, the memories of staff 
members. 

Because of the numerical small- 
ness of the station staff and the 
information available, this history, 
instead of dealing exclusively with the 
research work carried out at the 
Regina Research Station, is more con- 
cerned with the people who have 
done so much to make it the center 
for weed research in Canada. 



A. E. S. 



Regina, Sask. 
January 1981 



Foreword 




We were very pleased to accept the 
offer of Dr. Allan Smith to write the 
history of the Regina Research Sta- 
tion in recognition of its 50th anni- 
versary. 

We would like to thank him and all 
those who helped him record the 
events that took place. Certainly it 
will be of interest to those of us who 
helped to build the station, and we 
trust to others as well. 

Two problems led to the establish- 
ment of the Regina substation and 
solutions to those problems have 
been found. The use of cultivators 
and the practice of maintaining trash 
cover on the soil surface essentially 
stopped the problem of erosion of 
soil by wind, and within 15 years the 
wild mustard problem on the Regina 
Plains was solved with the introduc- 
tion of 2,4-D in 1945. 

The amazing success of this herbi- 
cide on wild mustard led to further 
research to find ways to control 
other weeds that plagued the prairie 
farmers. As is apparent in this history 
many successes followed, and now, 
50 years after the start of the station, 
not only wild mustard but most of the 
weeds in crops grown on the prairies 
can be controlled with herbicides. 



It is now accepted that the sole re- 
liance on herbicides for the control of 
weeds will not likely be a satisfactory 
strategy. Production systems for con- 
trol of weeds will have to be devel- 
oped that will integrate all means- 
chemical, biological, and cultural 
with the objective of minimizing the 
amount of herbicide that is intro- 
duced into the environment. More 
work will be required on the biology 
of weeds, biological control, and the 
methods of applying herbicides. This 
is the challenge facing the next gen- 
eration of weed scientists. 



J. R. Hay 



Saskatoon, Sask. 



Unfortunately, these advances have 
not been without their complications. 
Any new technology brings problems 
that must be solved before further 
progress can be made. The increase 
in populations of weed species resist- 
ant to certain herbicides, possible 
contamination of air, soil, and water 
by herbicides, and occupational 
hazards of exposure to herbicides are 
a few of the problems that have been 
encountered. Research has had to be 
mounted to deal with these and other 
problems. 



CHAPTER 1 



The Founding of the Regina Experimental Substation 









1931 

Before Confederation, agricultural 
concerns in Canada were taken care 
of by a Bureau of Agriculture. Under 
Confederation, the Federal Depart- 
ment of Agriculture was established 
on May 22, 1868 and continued to 
function for several years as before. 
However, by the early 1880s, it was 
realized that Canadian agricultural 
methods needed much improvement. 
In the West, new crop varieties and 
agricultural practices more suited to 
western conditions were sorely 
needed, while the established meth- 
ods of farming in the East were 
rapidly becoming outdated. 

A select committee of the House of 
Commons, headed by G. A. Gigault, 
Member of Parliament for Rouville, 
Que., was appointed in 1884 to deter- 
mine how these necessary improve- 
ments could be made. Amongst its 
findings the Gigault Committee 
recommended the setting up of an 
experimental farm. Professor William 
Saunders of Northwestern University, 
London, Ont., was commissioned to 
study and report on the establishment 
of such an experimental program for 
agriculture. As a result of his report, 
Parliament passed the Dominion 
Experimental Farms Service Act on 
June 2, 1886, in order to develop im- 
proved methods of farming across 
Canada, and provide this information 
to the farmers. 

Dr. Saunders was made the first 
Director of the Experimental Farms 
Service, a post he held for 25 years. 
Initially five experimental farms were 
established to fulfill Canada's agricul- 
tural needs. The Central Experimental 
Farm at Ottawa also acted as the 
headquarters for the Experimental 
Farms Service. Dominion experi- 
mental farms were set up at Nappan, 
N.S., to serve the Maritime Provinces; 
at Brandon, Man., for Palliser's Fertile 
Belt; at Indian Head, N.W.T., for the 
Palliser Triangle; and at Agassiz, B.C., 
for the Pacific Region. 



The Dominion Experimental Farms 
Service Act stated that the main areas 
for investigation to be undertaken by 
the farms were livestock breeding and 
nutrition; dairying; the development of 
cereals and other field and orchard 
crops; the study of seeds, fertilizers, 
plant diseases, and insect pests; and 
diseases of domestic animals. 

Before selecting Indian Head as the 
site for an experimental farm, Dr. 
Saunders made two visits to the 
Northwest Territories, the first in 
December of 1886, and the second in 
October of the following year. Accom- 
panied by Angus Mackay, who was to 
become the first Superintendent of 
the Indian Head Experimental Farm in 
1887, Dr. Saunders made a thorough 
survey of the region between Mooso- 
min and Fort Qu'Appelle before 273 
ha, close to the town of Indian Head, 
were selected and purchased. Under 
Mackay's direction a varied program 
was established. New methods for 
cultivation and seeding were devel- 
oped, cereal breeding programs were 
set up to select crop varieties most 
suited to the region by being able to 
withstand the effects of drought, 
wind, frost, and rust, and a program 
to improve livestock production was 
also implemented. During his years as 
Superintendent, Angus Mackay made 
many valuable contributions to prairie 
agriculture, and upon his retirement 
in 1913 at the age of 73, a grateful 
government continued to make use of 
his services by appointing him 
Inspector of Western Experimental 
Farms, a position he held for the next 
15 years. 

In 1905, the settled portions of the 
Northwest Territories were given pro- 
vincial status, and Alberta and Saskat- 
chewan joined Confederation. The in- 
crease in the population of Saskat- 
chewan meant that more land was 
broken to agriculture and more infor- 
mation on farming pactices was re- 
quired by the new immigrant farmers 
who had settled in various parts of 
the province. Clearly, the Experimen- 
tal Farm at Indian Head could not 
supply all the necessary new infor- 
mation, so in 1908 the Dominion Ex- 
perimental Station at Rosthern, mid- 
way between Saskatoon and Prince 
Albert, was started. The Rosthern 
Station was to specialize in projects 



which would aid farmers in the cen- 
tral area of Saskatchewan. A further 
station at Scott was opened in 1911 
to develop agricultural practices 
suited to the dry windswept plains of 
northwestern Saskatchewan. 

Dr. E. S. Archibald became Direc- 
tor of the Experimental Farms Service 
in 1919, remaining in that capacity 
for the next 30 years. Under Dr. 
Archibald's direction new experimen- 
tal farms were established when and 
where the need arose. He believed 
that instead of setting up large experi- 
mental stations dealing with all as- 
pects of agriculture, smaller stations 
investigating specific problems would 
better serve local agriculture. The first 
of these new stations was opened at 
Swift Current in 1920, where the main 
function was to develop cultural meth- 
ods and cropping systems suited to 
the dry areas of southern Saskatche- 
wan and Alberta. These programs 
were to counteract the problems of 
soil drifting, to conserve moisture, 
and to control weeds. 

The area of Saskatchewan known 
as the Regina Plains consists of 
about 800 000 ha of fine textured 
lacustrine clay bounded by the cities 
of Regina, Moose Jaw, and Weyburn. 
This clay area is eminently suited to 
the growing of hard red spring wheat 
and by the late 1920s there were more 
than 6000 farmers operating in the re- 
gion. However, low rainfall coupled 
with the use of cultural methods de- 
veloped for farming in Europe or 
Eastern Canada, resulted in extensive 
soil drifting by the end of the decade. 
Other major agricultural problems of 
the Regina Plains at that time also 
included heavy infestations of stink- 
weed, yellow mustard, Canada thistle, 
and poverty weed. Because these 
weeds were not a problem in the soils 
found near Indian Head and Swift Cur- 
rent, the weed control studies being 
conducted at the two nearby experi- 
mental farms were not directly applic- 
able to conditions on the Regina 
Plains. 

Collectively, the farmers of the 
Regina Plains were producing more 
wheat than farmers of any other area 
in Western Canada, and for this rea- 
son deteriorating soil conditions and 
the presence of weed infestations 
were a serious threat both to them 
and to the economy in general. The 
Agricultural Committee of the Regina 



Board of Trade became increasingly 
concerned about the plight of these 
farmers and felt that because their 
problems could not be adequately 
solved by either the Indian Head or 
Swift Current experimental farms, a 
similar farm should be established on 
the Regina Plains. This farm could 
then work on the agricultural prob- 
lems peculiar to the region. 

These concerns culminated in a 
meeting of the Regina Board of Trade, 
held at the Hotel Saskatchewan on 
October 8, 1930. A resolution that an 
experimental farm be established for 
the Regina district was proposed by 
Mr. E. H. Morrison and seconded by 
Mr. V. Sifton. The motion was carried, 
and in the late fall of 1930 representa- 
tions for the founding of a govern- 
ment-funded experimental station 
were made to Prime Minister Bennett 
and the Minister of Agriculture, the 
Hon. Robert Weir. Officials from rural 
municipalities and agricultural organi- 
zations in the Regina Plains also gave 
their support and encouragement for 
the founding of an experimental farm. 

Both the Prime Minister and the 
Minister of Agriculture were sympa- 
thetic to the problems being encoun- 
tered by the farmers of southern 
Saskatchewan, and the proposal of 
the Regina Board of Trade was sent 
to Dr. Archibald for consideration. At 
first the Director of the Experimental 
Farms Service thought that the needs 
of the prairie farmers could best be 
met by the establishment of either a 
District Experiment Station or an Il- 
lustration Station. There were sever- 
al such stations within an 80-km 
radius of Regina where a variety of 
agricultural problems were being stud- 
ied on local farms (instead of feder- 
ally owned farms) as an extension of 
the comprehensive work being done 
by the Indian Head Experimental 
Farm. 

In March 1931, Dr. Archibald visited 
Regina and was met by a delegation 
from the Regina Board of Trade. Dr. 
Archibald also discussed the regional 
agricultural problems with Mr. W. H. 
Gibson, Mr. J. G. Taggart, and Mr. 
W. H. Fairfield, the respective Super- 
intendents of the Indian Head, Swift 
Current, and Lethbridge experimental 
stations. Following his visit to 
Regina, Dr. Archibald wrote to the 
Minister of Agriculture on March 12, 
1931 and said that, while he could not 



support the setting up of a fully 
equipped experimental farm because 
of the expense and unnecessary du- 
plication of work being done at Swift 
Current and Indian Head, he would 
certainly recommend the establish- 
ment of a special government-funded 
substation where experimental work 
could be conducted. It was further 
suggested that the substation be 
placed under the guidance and con- 
trol of Mr. Taggart, the Superinten- 
dent of Swift Current Experimental 
Station. 

Mr. Taggart was therefore entrusted 
with the task of obtaining a 10-year 
agreement for land at a suitable site, 
organizing the future research pro- 
gram, and finding a qualified person 
to take charge of the various experi- 
ments. In April 1931, he spent 2 days 
in Regina discussing the role of the 
future station with farmers and repre- 
sentatives from the provincial govern- 
ment. Mr. Taggart met with the Re- 
gina Board of Trade members at Was- 
cana Hotel on April 15, and reported 
that their endeavors had been suc- 
cessful, and that he was in the area 
with the express purpose of locating 
a site for the future substation. 

As a result of these meetings and 
discussions, and after considering the 
questions of soil type, soil drifting, 
weed infestations, and accessibility 
to the public, Mr. Taggart wrote to Dr. 
Archibald on April 16, informing him 
that the proposed substation should 
be located at Regina rather than on 
alternative sites at Drinkwater, Moose 
Jaw, or Rouleau. Dr. Archibald was 
further informed that the substation 
should be sited about 3 km south of 
the city near to the junction of Nos. 1 
and 6 highways, and that, of the four 
specific locations examined by Mr. 
Taggart, the one personally recom- 
mended consisted of a half-section of 
land owned by the provincial govern- 
ment. There were, however, no build- 
ings on this land. Mr. Taggart noted 
that the Provincial Department of 
Agriculture had been conducting 
weed control experiments at Drink- 
water, 48 km southwest of Regina, 
but was willing to close this station 
and sell its buildings and equipment 
to the federal government for use by 
the proposed substation. 



These recommendations were com- 
municated by Dr. Archibald to the 
Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Dr. 
J. H. Grisdale, on April 21, 1931, and 
approval was granted 4 days later. A 
wire was sent to Mr. Taggart inform- 
ing him of the decision, whereupon 
an agreement was signed with the 
provincial government giving the 
Experimental Farms Service use of 
the land in the West Half-Section of 
Section 8, Township 17, Range 19, 
West of the 2nd Meridian, for a period 
of 5 years, starting May 1, 1931, with 
an option to renew for a further 5-year 
period. The rent for the 96 ha was 
$8.75 a hectare per year. 

Discussions were also held be- 
tween Mr. Taggart and Mr. F. H. Auld, 
Saskatchewan's Minister of Agricul- 
ture, regarding the future of the Pro- 
vincial Weed Experiment Station at 
Drinkwater. This station had been es- 
tablished by the Provincial Depart- 
ment of Agriculture on farmland be- 
longing to Mr. R. A. Wright and Mr. C. 
Carey, and consisted of 29.6 ha, 
fenced and fully equipped with ma- 
chinery. Experiments were being con- 
ducted on the control of wild mus- 
tard, wild oats, stinkweed, and 
Canada thistle. Although financed by 
the provincial government, the actual 
experimental work was directed by Dr. 
L. E. Kirk, Professor of Field Hus- 
bandry at the College of Agriculture, 
University of Saskatchewan. In 1930, 
Mr. W. S. Chepil was in charge of the 
Drinkwater Station under Dr. Kirk, ad- 
ditional labor being provided by 
George Miller and Robert Fitzgerald. 



Both 1929 and 1930 were drought 
years in southern Saskatchewan, con- 
sequently no experimental results 
were obtained for either year at Drink- 
water. Since the provincial govern- 
ment was also conducting weed con- 
trol studies at Watson, Lockwood, 
Eston, and Gravelbourg, Mr. Auld 
agreed to discontinue the studies 
being undertaken at Drinkwater and 
sell two buildings and the equipment 
from the Weed Experiment Station to 
the Dominion Experimental Farms 
Service for the sum of $2064.49. It 
was understood that the experiments 
initiated at Drinkwater would be con- 
tinued at Regina. 

Land, buildings, and equipment had 
been acquired and all that remained 
was for Mr. Taggart to hire the ser- 
vices of Mr Chepil for the full-time 
position of Officer in Charge of the 
new substation. His classification 
was that of graduate laborer. George 
Miller and Robert Fitzgerald were also 
taken on by the Experimental Farms 
Service for the summer season of 
1931. 

By the beginning of May 1931, the 
necessary negotiations were complet- 
ed and on the front page of the Re- 
gina Leader-Post for Thursday, May 7, 
1931 it was proudly proclaimed: 

EXPERIMENTAL FARM TO BE 
ESTABLISHED NEAR REGINA AT 
ONCE 

The Leader-Post went on to state that 
the site was 4 km southeast of the 
city, and that the purpose of the 
Regina Substation was to conduct 
experiments on soil drifting, weed 
control, crop rotations, and the grow- 
ing of various crops such as grasses 
and all varieties of grain. 

Thus, the substation was reality 
only 7 months after the initial resolu- 
tion had been passed by the Regina 
Board of Trade. 



CHAPTER 2 



The Early Years 



1931-1935 

Dr. Archibald wrote to Dr. Grisdale 
on May 18, 1931, informing him that 
the substation recently established at 
Regina for the purpose of studying 
soil drifting and weed control was 
now fully equipped, and work was pro- 
ceeding nicely. Records for 1931 indi- 
cate that the early days of the substa- 
tion were chaotic. Buildings and 
equipment were purchased in late 
April from the Provincial Weed Experi- 
ment Station at Drinkwater and had to 
be brought to Regina. Plots were 
marked out, additional equipment 
purchased, seed was required, and 
the host of supplies and sundries 
needed to set up the new substation 
had to be obtained. 



Mr. Taggart was on hand during the 
first week of May, and with Mr. 
Chepil, George Miller, and Robert 
Fitzgerald organized the transfer of 
two buildings and machinery to the 
Regina location. The move started 
about May 4, and was completed with- 
in a few days. For moving the build- 
ings from Mr. Wright's farm to the 
city, Mr. John Deacon of Regina 
submitted an account to the substa- 
tion for $45.00. The buildings in ques- 
tion consisted of a small field office 
and a storage shack. Purchases of 
bedding and other household effects 
in May 1931, suggest that one of 
these buildings was used, at least 
temporarily, as a bunkhouse. A gran- 
ary was bought or constructed during 
the summer. 

A telephone was installed, with the 
easily remembered number 8765, and 
Post Office Box 516 was rented. The 
substation retained both these num- 
bers for many years. 

There were no sewage facilities or 
electricity at the station. Water was 
obtained from either Wascana Creek 
or a standpipe 1.6 km west on Albert 
Street. However, these spartan condi- 
tions did not daunt Bill Chepil, 
George Miller, or Bob Fitzgerald who 
were to remain with the substation for 
many years. 




William Stephen Chepil was born at 
Gimli, Man. on January 1, 1904. He 
received a B.S.A. degree from the Col- 
lege of Agriculture of the University 
of Saskatchewan in 1930, and was 
awarded an M.Sc. degree from the 
same university in 1932. Before 
coming to Regina as Officer in Char- 
ge of the new substation, he held a 
similar position at the Drinkwater Sta- 
tion. Those who still remember him 
all agree that Bill Chepil was persona- 
ble, competent, and intelligent; 
moreover, he was held in high regard 
by his superiors both at Swift Current 
and in Ottawa. 

Little is known about Robert 
Fitzgerald, who had also been employ- 
ed at the Drinkwater Station, but he 
was a constant summer employee of 
the substation until the end of 1940. 

George Miller was born in Devon- 
shire, England, in 1889. He came to 
Cupar, Sask. in 1910, and worked on 
farms in the area until 1916 when he 
enlisted in the Canadian Expedition- 
ary Force. After serving in France 
with the 5th Battalion during the First 
World War, and then with the Occupa- 
tional Army, he returned in 1919 to 
Cupar and a life of working on local 
farms. In the spring of 1929, he joined 
the newly opened Weed Experiment 
Farm at Drinkwater and remained 
there until he was hired by the Regina 
Substation. 

Despite the hectic weeks following 
the opening of the station, the pro- 
grams devised by Mr. Taggart and Bill 
Chepil were organized. During the 
first year cultural experiments, herbi- 
cide tests, and weed ecology studies 
were set up. 




above 

July 1931 

Regina Experimental Substation 

buildings— moved from Drinkwater 

in May 1931. 

below 

William Stephen Chepil, Officer in Charge, 

1931-1936. 





above 

ca 1930 

Wheat field heavily infested with wild 

mustard. 

below 

ca1930 

Soil drifts in a field near the substation. 



The cultural experiments were 
undertaken to devise summerfallow 
practices for the eradication of 
Canada thistle and to observe the 
effects of bare fallow on the root 
systems of Canada thistle and poverty 
weed. Methods for preparing and 
seeding fallow and stubble land were 
also studied. 

Experiments with herbicides includ- 
ed the use of sulfuric acid and 
copper nitrate sprays for control of 
wild mustard and stinkweed in a varie- 
ty of cereal, oil seed, and forage 
crops. The control of the perennial 
weeds Canada thistle and poverty 
weed using sodium chlorate was 
investigated. Data were collected to 
find the most susceptible stage for 
weed control using chemicals, while 
determining the stage of crop growth 
most resistant to the herbicidal appli- 
cations. 

The purpose of the weed ecology 
studies was to observe how weed 
populations were affected by various 
tillage and cropping practices. Also, 
the density of weed seeds present in 
the soil at various depths was meas- 
ured and the viability of these seeds 
determined through propagation stud- 
ies. Growth and propagation studies 
were done on Canada thistle and 
poverty weed to develop methods bet- 
ter suited to the destruction of these 
perennial weeds. 

A busy program, but the first year 
was not successful. In the Regina 
area a lack of snow during the winter 
of 1930-31, and a dry spring resulted 
in one of the severest droughts ever 
experienced. Soil drifting was exten- 
sive that summer; consequently no 
grain was harvested that first year at 
the substation, an occurrence that 
has never happened since. 

At the end of October 1931, the 
seasonal laborers George Miller and 
Bob Fitzgerald were laid off. Bill 
Chepil visited Swift Current, attended 
agricultural meetings in the province, 
and wrote his comprehensive annual 
report describing the results obtained 
from the various tests and experi- 
ments. 

In April 1932, George Miller and 
Bob Fitzgerald were rehired. That year 
George married Stella Brown of Cupar 
and brought his bride to the substa- 
tion, where they lived for the rest of 



10 




their married lives, except for a year 
spent in British Columbia during the 
1940s. George Miller was taken on 
permanent staff by the federal govern- 
ment in 1933 and the Millers lived in a 
cottage on the substation. Mrs. Miller 
ran the bunkhouse from 1932 until her 
husband's death in 1955. 

During the working season George 
acted as Farm Foreman and during 
the winter the Millers looked after the 
substation and equipment, took the 
meteorological records, and made 
plot marker cards. Another winter job 
involved the hand threshing of the 
grain samples from the various test 
plots, and the counting of weed 
seeds. 

The office at the substation was 
primitive in those early years and the 
officers in charge would either work 
at home during the winter months or 
rent office space in the city. There are 
no records of any secretarial help 
then. Despite the occasional visit 
from Bill Chepil, the winters must 
have been lonely months for the 
Millers. Further construction took 
place during the early 1930s, and a 



photograph taken in 1934 shows the 
Miller's residence, two granaries, an 
implement shed, the office, a bunk- 
house, and a privy. 

The years 1931-1935 were challeng- 
ing times for the new Regina Substa- 
tion. This was the beginning of the 
"Dirty Thirties" and the depression 
that was to affect the agricultural and 
industrial production of almost the 
entire world. During those years, 
despite poor crop conditions, soil 
drifting, lack of snow and rain, grass- 
hoppers, and the rust outbreak of 
1935, work at the substation contin- 
ued and was expanded. Extra summer 
staff was hired. For the seasons of 
1933 and 1934, N. A. Langhorne and 
G. Secret were taken on strength, in 
addition to Bob Fitzgerald. William 
Shevkenek and Lyle Treble were hired 
for the summer of 1935. By 1935, work 
was progressing so well that on April 
1, an additional 64 ha of land from the 
southeast Quarter of Section 7, Town- 
ship 17, Range 19, West of the 2nd 
Meridian were leased from McCallum 
Hill & Co., Ltd. for a 4-year period at a 
rent of $10.00 a hectare per year. 



above left 

Summer 1934 

Buildings at Regina Experimental 

Substation. 



below left 

July 1935 

Binding brome grass- 
tractor. 



-George Miller on 



above right 

July 1935 

George Miller washing out soil samples 

for weed seed population study. 



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During the initial years of the 
Regina Substation, operating fields in 
strips and light sowing cover crops on 
fallow was practiced and tillage 
methods better suited to summerfal- 
low were developed as a means of 
reducing soil drifting. Methods for 
destroying weeds on summerfallow 
using tillage procedures were com- 
pared. The land surrounding the sub- 
station was heavily infested with wild 
mustard, stinkweed, Canada thistle, 
and poverty weed, and the herbicidal 
work with sulfuric acid, copper salts, 
and chlorates was continued. Sum- 
merfallow, tillage, and cropping prac- 
tices were shown to be effective 
against Canada thistle. Cultural con- 
trol of this weed was aided by the low 
rainfall of the early 1930s and the 
damage caused by both grasshoppers 
and the larvae of the thistle butterfly 
{Vanessa cardui). 

Wild mustard was by far the most 
troublesome weed on the station and 
much work was directed at its con- 
trol. The effects of rates of crop 
seeding, varying seeding dates, ferti- 
lizer, crop rotations, chemical control 
agents, and harrowing were all tested 
in attempts to control this scourge. 
The weed ecology studies were also 
continued and developed. Time was 
found to initate a program on the ef- 
fects of fertilizers on crop yields. 

The Regina Board of Trade, which 
had done so much toward its estab- 
lishment, maintained close ties with 
the substation. In 1932, a committee 
was formed to support and popularize 
the station. Meetings were organized 
to secure the cooperation of the 
farmers in the region to record their 
tillage practices and this information 
was used by the Regina Substation to 
study soil drifting under various farm- 
ing conditions. During the early 1930s 
field days jointly organized by the 
substation and the Regina Board of 
Trade were started. These field days 
are still being held. Farmers attending 
the field day of 1934 listened to an 
address by the Provincial Minister of 
Agriculture, the Hon. J. G. Taggart, 
who that year had left Swift Current 
and federal service to successfully 
stand for the Saskatchewan Legisla- 
ture. After the Hon. J. G. Taggart's 
address there were discussions on 
methods for controlling soil drifting. 
These discussions were held under 
the chairmanship of Mr. John 
Cameron who, in 1936, was to 



12 




become the next Officer in Charge of 
the Regina Substation. 

Agricultural conditions on the prai- 
ries continued to deteriorate as a re- 
sult of soil drifting and drought, and 
swift federal action was needed to 
provide both the necessary money 
and research to counteract the ter- 
rible conditions. The Prairie Farm 
Rehabilitation Administration (PFRA) 
Act of 1935 was enacted to ". . . pro- 
vide for the improvement of agricul- 
tural conditions in those parts of the 



Prairie Provinces which in recent 
years have suffered from drought and 
soil drifting . . .." This Act, initially 
under the direction of the Minister of 
Agriculture although it was later to 
come under a separate administra- 
tion, was designed to alleviate the 
prairie agricultural problems by im- 
proving cultural practices, conserving 
water, and controlling land use. Much 
of the early work for the program was 
undertaken by the experimental farms 
and stations on the prairies, and in 
1935 approximately 10 percent of the 



funding for the Regina Experimental 
Substation was provided by PFRA 
sources. 

In 1935, the second chapter in the 
history of the substation began when 
the administration and supervision 
was transferred from Swift Current to 
the Indian Head Experimental Farm 
where Mr. W. H. Gibson was Super- 
intendent. 



13 



CHAPTER 3 



Hard Times 




1936-1945 




above 

John Cameron, Officer in Charge, 
1936-1945. 

below 

September 1936 
George and Stella Miller. 



Under the administration and super- 
vision of Mr. Gibson and the Indian 
Head Experimental Farm, the studies 
being done at the Regina Substation 
were continued. 

The work on soil drifting at Regina 
was beginning to receive the favor- 
able attention of Bill Chepil's 
superiors. When a position was creat- 
ed in Ottawa, in 1936, for a soil 
scientist, Dr. Archibald wrote to Mr. 
Gibson requesting the names of pos- 
sible candidates. Mr. Gibson replied 
that Bill Chepil was eminently suit- 
able for the position, but did they 
really want to remove him from 
Regina where his work was of such 
importance? The worth and quality of 
his work was recognized early in 1936 
when he was promoted from graduate 
laborer to professional status; and in 
the fall of 1936 he was transferred to 
the Soil Research Laboratory at Swift 
Current to undertake research on the 
wind erosion of soil and its preven- 
tion. 

The Soil Research Laboratory, lo- 
cated at the Dominion Experimental 
Station at Swift Current, was opened 
in June 1936, as a result of the 1935 
PFRA Act, to conduct studies into 
soil fertility, moisture conservation, 
and wind erosion control. Although 
this laboratory was under the supervi- 
sion of the Experimental Farms 
Service of the Department of Agricul- 
ture, it remained a separate entity 
under the PFRA cultural program until 
1957, when it became a section of the 
Swift Current Experimental Station. 

Except for two leaves of absence, 
Bill Chepil continued with his studies 
into the mechanisms of wind erosion 
at the Soil Research Laboratory until 
1948. The first leave between 1937 
and 1939, enabled him to attend the 
University of Minnesota to undertake 
postgraduate studies, resulting in his 
being awarded a Ph.D. degree in early 
1941. During 1946, Bill began an 
18-month assignment in the Chinese 
Provinces of Honan and Anwhei as a 
soil reclamation specialist with the 
United Nations Relief and Rehabilita- 
tion Administration (UNRRA). In 1948 
he left Swift Current to take up a 



position with the Agricultural Re- 
search Service of the U.S. Department 
of Agriculture (USDA) at Kansas State 
University, Manhattan, Kans. There he 
held the dual title of Soil Scientist 
(Research) USDA and Professor of 
Soils, Kansas State University, and 
was responsible for soil erosion re- 
search. His work was successful and 
in 1961 he became Research Investi- 
gations Leader for Soil Erosion in the 
Southern Plains Branch of the Soil 
and Water Conservation Research 
Division of the Agricultural Research 
Service. At his death on September 6, 
1963 at the age of 59, Dr. Chepil was 
a world-renowned scientist in the area 
of soil erosion, its causes, and its 
control. On this and related subjects 
he had published over 90 papers in 
the scientific literature. 

John Cameron, who became the 
second Officer in Charge of the 
Regina Experimental Substation in 
August 1936, had a completely differ- 
ent background from that of Bill 
Chepil. "Jock" Cameron, born in 
Greenock, Scotland in 1889, was the 
eldest of five children. The Camerons 
came to Canada in 1903 and home- 
steaded in the Saskatoon district. As 
a young man he worked on the family 
farm and attended the University of 
Saskatchewan. In 1915, after the out- 
break of the First World War, John 
Cameron joined the Princess 
Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry and 
saw active service in France during 
1915 and 1916. He was wounded 
twice, and in April 1917 was invalided 
out of the army and repatriated to 
Canada and Saskatoon. Mr. Cameron 
reentered the University of Saskatche- 
wan and graduated with a B.S.A. 
degree in 1918. For several years he 
was manager of the Saskatchewan 
Farmers' Mutual Fire Association. 
After a few years in California he re- 
turned to Saskatchewan and entered 
the service of the Field Crops Branch 
of the Provincial Department of Agri- 
culture. He was, for a time, respon- 
sible for the chemical weed control 
experiments being done at Jansen. 
Sask. In 1932, John Cameron left the 
Saskatchewan government to become 
Provincial Sales Manager of the Com- 
mercial Fertilizer Division for the 
Consolidated Mining and Smelting 
Co., a position he held for 4 years 
before his appointment as Officer in 
Charge of the Regina Substation, 
where he remained until January 1945. 
Jock Cameron seems to have been a 



14 




• ; i 



■\-". ■ 



,~V r *( ,-:■;'' €?&■* ■ 



-*.- 



v 



. * •■ 



-. 



• *:"--■ 



, , ; % 



V 



W ■:;-, j\ ■■■' <m*9&-2L 



r 








quiet but friendly man with a sense of 
humor and a ready joke. Mrs. Stella 
Miller recalls that his daughter did not 
take it kindly when Jock Cameron 
taught his young grandson the sol- 
diers' versions of First World War 
army songs. 

Mr. Cameron's staff at the substa- 
tion was small, George Miller being 
the only other permanent member. 
Bob Fitzgerald worked every summer 
until the end of 1940. During the latter 
part of the 1930s Lyle Treble was a 
regular summer employee, and 
William Shevkenek was employed 
continuously from April 1935 until 
May 1937, his winter wages being 
paid out of PFRA funds. Other staff 
was hired temporarily as and when 
the need arose. Mrs. Miller was, of 
course, still responsible for the bunk- 
house. 

At this point it seems appropriate 
to mention Bert Smith, who was first 
employed at the Regina Substation in 
the summer of 1943. Albert Edgar 
Smith was born in England in 1890 
and immigrated to Canada during the 
early 1900s. He worked on farms in 
the Cupar district and thus met the 
Millers. An excellent worker, he was 
offered and accepted a permanent 
position at the substation in 1947 and 
remained on staff until his retirement 
in 1959. Bert Smith was a bachelor. 



During the late 1930s and early 
1940s, life at the substation followed 
the pattern set in the earlier days. 
Work was done only in the summer 
season, and in the winter John 
Cameron rented office space in the 
city and caught up with his paper 
work and report writing. For eight win- 
ters, starting with that of 1936-37, 
office space was leased in the Darke 
building in what is now the Medical 
Arts building. During the winter of 
1944-45, John Cameron's office was 
located in the Cornwall building. 
There is no reference to any clerical 
staff; John must either have done his 
own typing or sent his reports and 
correspondence to Indian Head for 
typing. In early 1941, C. B. Dawson 
was hired briefly to type the Annual 
Report for 1940. 

For the farming population of the 
Regina Plains the second half of the 
1930s was as bad as the five preced- 
ing years. The problem of drifting soil 
coupled with economic recession 
meant that even the crops which the 
farmers were able to grow could only 
be sold at low prices. Farm incomes 
were at an extremely low level and fi- 
nancial assistance was necessary to 
keep many farmers in operation. The 
value of farmland continued to depre- 
ciate and in the absence of buyers 
farms were being abandoned. In 1937, 
another drought year, crop yields at 
the substation and in the province 
were the lowest ever on record. 
Grasshoppers caused considerable 
damage during the period 1937-1939, 
but fortunately became less trouble- 



some after 1940. During the early 
1940s, the wheat stem sawfly (Cephus 
cinctus) started to become an increas- 
ingly serious pest. 

The outbreak of the Second World 
War in 1939, influenced world markets 
and economic recovery followed. 
Farming products were in great de- 
mand and sold for comparatively high 
prices. Thus, in 1942 crop yields in 
Saskatchewan were at an all-time high 
and the price of land had doubled 
since 1937. As a result of the new cul- 
tivation practices initiated at Swift 
Current and Regina, soil drifting on 
the Regina Plains became less of a 
problem in the early 1940s. 



left 

ca 1940 

Perennial root excavation by Bob 

Fitzgerald. 

right 

Winter 1946-47 

Long-time employee Bert Smith standing 

beside bunkhouse. 



15 




above 








"The L 


space 




iters 






opposite page • above 












opposite page • center 




mer 1936 












opposite page • below 








. 









During the period 1936-1945 work 
at the Regina Substation settled down 
to routine experiments, many of 
which were a continuation of those 
initiated by Mr. Taggart and Dr. 
Chepil. No significant new studies 
were conducted. The major emphasis 
of the substation was to reduce soil 
drifting, using cropping and tillage 
practices. Thus, investigations 
comparing the effects of summerfal- 
low methods, spring tillage, strip 
farming, cover crops, and straw 
spreading, on the control of soil 
erosion, were continued. 

Weeds were still a problem on the 
Regina Plains, with wild mustard 
being by far the worst offender, al- 
though stinkweed, poverty weed, and 
Canada thistle were also troublesome. 
The cultural methods for weed control 
were continued, and the effects of 
crop type, crop rotation, summerfal- 
lowing, harrowing after seeding, and 
rates, dates, and depth of crop seed- 
ing on weed densities were studied. 
During the drought years, Canada 
thistle had responded so well to the 
cultural control practices that by 1936 
the project was curtailed owing to a 



lack of suitable stands on the substa- 
tion for further experimentation. 

The herbicide studies with sulfuric 
acid and copper salts were continued, 
and in 1939 weed control work with 
cyanamid was started. The overall 
opinion of these herbicide investiga- 
tions was that, as a means of control- 
ling wild mustard and stinkweed, 
such treatments were just too expen- 
sive to be of general and widespread 
use. Besides, use of sulfuric acid and 
copper salts meant that corrosion-free 
spraying equipment was needed. 

In addition to these programs, time 
was found to continue the weed ecol- 
ogy studies and to measure weed 
seed populations in the soil and 
assess their germinating potential. 
Losses of wheat, oats, and barley 
caused by various densities of wild 
mustard were documented. Crop rota- 
tion studies, cultural and cropping 
experiments, and fertilizer tests were 
also conducted and compared to 
measure crop yields under the differ- 
ent cultural conditions. 

Reorganization of the Experimental 
Farms Service in 1937, the first since 
its inception in 1886, did not affect 
the Regina Substation, which contin- 
ued to remain within the Field Hus- 
bandry Division of the Service. 

During the period 1936-1945 very 
little building was done at the substa- 
tion. Photographs show that a porch 
was added to the Miller's residence, 
and that some trees were planted 
about the site. There was still no elec- 
tricity, gas, or sewage facilities, and 
water was obtained from either the 
creek or the standpipe on Albert 
Street. The lack of building was not 
due to lack of confidence in the sub- 
station, but rather to the poor finan- 
cial circumstances experienced 
throughout the 1930s and to the fact 
that the federal government did not 
own the land on which the substation 
was situated. 

The original 5-year lease for the 
land from the provincial government 
had expired in 1936 and was renewed 
for a further 2-year period in 1936 and 
again in 1938. In a letter dated August 
29, 1939 to Dr. Barton, the Federal 
Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Dr. 
Archibald wrote of his misgivings re- 
garding the current status of the 
Regina Research Station. He paid trib- 



16 





«*—-*- 




ute to the work being done at the sta- 
tion and noted that this should be 
continued for at least another 5-year 
period. However, he remarked that he 
was reluctant to recommend further 
investment in buildings and equip- 
ment without the federal government 
having any equity in the land on 
which the substation was sited. 

The provincial government was 
approached and on March 11, 1940, 
for the sum of $1.00 per year, the land 
originally rented from the Saskatche- 
wan government was leased to the 
government of Canada from May 1, 
1940 for as long as it was required for 
use as an experimental substation. 
The 64 ha rented from McCallum Hill 
& Co., Ltd. were leased for furtner 
4-year periods in 1939 and in 1943, the 
rent remaining at $10.00 a hectare per 
year. The Second World War prevent- 
ed any intended improvements and 
expansion from being made at the 
Regina Substation. 

In March 1944, the Millers left 
Regina to go to Cloverdale.B.C. to 
raise chickens. This must have been a 
great blow to John Cameron, because 
George Miller had been the mainstay 
of the substation from the day of its 
founding. Also, the bunkhouse had 
lost the capable services of Mrs. 
Miller. As a result of the war, staff 
was increasingly hard to find and 
John Cameron had difficulty getting a 
suitable replacement. He decided to 
try and obtain the services of a stu- 
dent from the University of Saskat- 
chewan. Accordingly, arrangements 
were made through Dr. Kirk, Dean of 
the College of Agriculture, and 
William Darcovich, B.S.A., was en- 
gaged on a permanent basis from 
May 1, 1944 as Graduate Assistant in 
Field Husbandry Investigations. 



17 




*^-#*ll 



above left 

ca 1940 

Sulfuric acid sprayer. 

above right 

July 1938 

View of substation buildings from north- 
northeast; Winnipeg Street at upper right. 

below right 

July 1938 

Mr. John Cameron speaking to farmers at 

field day. 




i*i* * 



The next person to leave the sub- 
station was John Cameron, who had 
done so much to guide the station 
through the hard times of the late 
1930s and then through the war years. 
John Cameron had always maintained 
a close interest in veterans' affairs, 
and while in Regina held executive 
offices in the Royal Canadian Legion, 
including that of President. In January 
1945, he resigned as Officer in Charge 
of the Regina Experimental Substa- 
tion and accepted a position with the 
Department of Veterans Affairs in 



Regina, as Head of the Soldiers' Set- 
tlement Board. Mr. Cameron remained 
with Veterans Affairs until 1949 or 
1950. He then moved to the West 
Coast where he stayed until his death 
in the 1960s. 

Until a new Officer in Charge could 
be appointed, Bill Darcovich became 
Acting Head of the substation in early 
1945. 



18 



CHAPTER 4 



The Postwar Years 



1945-1953 



William Darcovich was born in the 
Ukraine on July 3, 1921 and came to 
Canada with his family in 1928. He 
entered the Agricultural College of 
the University of Saskatchewan and 
was awarded his B.S.A. degree in 

1944, the same year he joined the 
staff of the Regina Substation. In 
January 1945, by a series of cir- 
cumstances he was Acting Officer in 
Charge and sole member of the sub- 
station during that winter. Fortunately 
for Bill, Mr. and Mrs. Miller returned 
to Regina from B.C. in the spring of 

1945. George was again hired as farm 
foreman of the substation and Mrs. 
Miller resumed her custodianship of 
the bunkhouse. So, with the help of 
Bert Smith, who had started work just 
before the Millers' return, the task of 
setting up the usual field experiments 
got underway. 

The 1945 season marked the begin- 
ning of a new era for the Regina Sub- 
station, for it was then that the test- 
ing of new weed control chemicals, 
supplied by the Ottawa Central Exper- 
imental Farm, was commenced. 
Among the herbicides to be tested 
were Sinox (dinoseb), and the recently 
discovered Weedone (2,4-D). The latter 
chemical was to revolutionize agricul- 
ture in Western Canada. 



In October 1945, Bill Darcovich left 
the substation to return to the Univer- 
sity of Saskatchewan and undertake 
an M.Sc. program in farm manage- 
ment. This was followed a few years 
later by a Ph.D. program in agricultur- 
al economics from Iowa State Univer- 
sity. Today Dr. William Darcovich is 
Chief, Farms Income Analysis Section 
of the Regional Development Director- 
ate of Agriculture Canada, in Ottawa. 

Late in 1945, James Roe Foster was 
appointed Officer in Charge of the 
Regina Substation. Born in Myrtle, 
Ont., on July 24, 1907, Roe Foster 
came as a boy to Denholm, near 
North Battleford, Sask., where his fa- 
ther settled to farm. From 1926 until 
1932 Roe Foster helped on the family 
farm and then attended the University 
of Saskatchewan. In 1937, after ob- 
taining a B.S.A. degree, he joined the 
Experimental Farm at Indian Head 
and worked on PFRA supported off- 
station reclamation programs until 
1941, when he enlisted in the RCAF. 
After the war, he returned to the 
Indian Head Experimental Farm in the 
fall of 1945 and was immediately ap- 
pointed Officer in Charge of the 
Regina Substation. 

Roe Foster spent the winter of 
1945-46 at Indian Head, familiarizing 
himself with the program being car- 
ried out at Regina, and thus did not 



come to the substation until April 
1946. Because there was no one at 
Regina to deal with the mail, com- 
plete the time sheets, and do other 
necessary clerical duties, Mr. Gibson, 
the longtime superintendent of the 
Indian Head Experimental Farm, hired 
Mrs. Miller that winter for 2 hours a 
day to look after such matters. 

In 1946, further tests were conduct- 
ed with 2,4-D. The work of the pre- 
vious season initiated by Bill 
Darcovich had shown that both dino- 
seb and 2,4-D were tremendously ef- 
fective against wild mustard and 
stinkweed. Because 2,4-D had many 
advantages over the former chemical, 
further testing with dinoseb was dis- 
continued. The long-established work 
with sulfuric acid and copper salts 
was also joyously terminated; the 
corrosive acid had a tendency to eat 
through coveralls and other clothing. 

During 1946, Roe Foster and 
George Knowles from the Central Ex- 
perimental Farm at Ottawa made fur- 
ther field tests with 2,4-D using a 
Buffalo turbine sprayer, which provid- 
ed crop coverage yet only required 
55-80 L of water per hectare. This 
was the first time that herbicidal 
sprays using such small quantities of 
water had been applied in Western 
Canada. Wild mustard and stinkweed 
were selectively and completely 




left 

William Darcovich, Acting Officer in 

Charge, 1945. 

right 

James Roe Foster, Officer in Charge, 
1945-1947; Superintendent, 1948-1953. 



19 



removed from the growing crops, the 
chemical was relatively inexpensive 
and easy to apply, and the cost was 
more than covered by the increased 
crop yields. No wonder farmers in the 
area were impressed. Word of the 
new wonder chemical spread quickly 
and during the summer of 1946 a 
delegation of farmers from North 
Dakota visited the substation to see 
the demonstration plots for them- 
selves. 

In July 1947, Roe Foster resigned 
to become an agricultural adviser with 
E. B. Gass & Sons, an agricultural 
implement firm in Regina. His place 
was taken by Ed Molberg. 



Edward Samuel Molberg was born 
on March 18, 1909 at Midale, Sask., 
and received his B.S. degree from the 
University of Minnesota in 1935. He 
worked on the family farm for 3 years 
before joining the Indian Head Experi- 
mental Farm in 1938 and became Act- 
ing Officer in Charge of the Regina 
Substation in July 1947 when Roe 
Foster resigned. That summer Ed 
Molberg completed the field test and 
treatments set up by Roe Foster and 
returned to Indian Head for the winter 
to write up the substation annual 
reports. In the spring of 1948, Ed 
Molberg returned to Regina to com- 
mence the season's work. 



In 1948, the position of Officer in 
Charge of the Regina Substation was 
reclassified to that of Superintendent, 
and in the same year a competition 
was held by the Civil Service Commis- 
sion to fill the post, which was still to 
be under the direction of the Superin- 
tendent of the Indian Head Experi- 
mental Farm. Roe Foster applied for 
the post and was duly accepted; thus 
on September 1, 1948 he became the 
first Superintendent of the substation, 
a position he held until 1953. 

Weed control using chemical meth- 
ods became a very important aspect 
of the work at the substation during 




above left 

Summer 1947 

The Buffalo turbine sprayer— used in early 
herbicide trials to apply chemicals such as 
2,4-D in either powder or liquid form. 

above right 

Summer 1946 

Buildings at substation, looking east on 

25th Avenue. 

below right 

Fall 1947 

Combine harvesting. 






20 



the period 1945-1953. Most of these 
studies were conducted by Ed 
Molberg, who had remained at Regina 
and was to continue with his excel- 
lent work until his retirement in 1974. 
Gradually, the cultural studies that 
had commenced in the early 1930s 
and continued until 1945 were termi- 
nated in favor of the chemical weed 
control experiments. This new weed 
control work included experiments to 
determine the susceptibility of differ- 
ent weed species, the tolerance of 
various crops to herbicides, the deter- 
mination of optimum spray volumes 
for weed control, an assessment as to 
methods of application, and a com- 
parison of the effects of different for- 
mulations of the same herbicide on 
weed control. Chemical tests were 
also made in attempts to destroy pe- 
rennial weeds, and for the control of 
weeds on summerfallow. Besides 
2,4-D, the herbicides propham, TCA, 
MCPA, 2,4, 5-T, and monuron were 
evaluated. 

The use of 2,4-D became wide- 
spread during the late 1940s for the 
control of wild mustard on the prai- 
ries. It was hoped that repeated an- 
nual applications would result in a 
rapid reduction of the weed seed pop- 
ulation in the soil, and as Roe Foster 
noted ". . . this chemical should 
sound the death knell of this yellow 
scourge of the Regina Plains " 

It was also during this period that 
the Regina Substation established its 
close ties with the National Weed 
Committee (later called the Canada 
Weed Committee, and now called the 
Expert Committee on Weeds). This na- 
tional society was formed in 1947, 
and held its first meeting in Regina 
during the late fall of that year. 

Toward the end of the 1940s, the 
substation started major studies with 
cereals. One aspect of this work com- 
pared the growing properties and crop 
yields of the different varieties of 
wheat, oats, and barley recommended 
for prairie farms, and made this infor- 
mation available to the farmers of the 
district. Other cereal studies were 
designed to breed high-quality wheat 
varieties resistant to both wheat stem 
sawfly and rust. 




During the 1940s wheat stem saw- 
fly had become such a major pest of 
wheat that in 1947 a group of prairie 
cerealists organized a cooperative 
program with the primary objective of 
producing a variety of wheat that had 
all the qualities of Marquis but with 
sawfly resistance. The cereal breeding 
laboratory at Lethbridge had the over- 
all responsibility for the program, and 
the Experimental Stations at Indian 
Head, Regina, Scott, and Swift 
Current assisted in the study. At 
Regina, plots were infested with saw- 
fly, and in this "sawfly nursery" 
resistant wheatgrasses were crossed 
with cereals to obtain sawfly resistant 
wheat lines. 

This cereal work at Regina was 
undertaken by Mr. E. A. Hurd. Ted 
Hurd started work at the substation 
as a student in 1948, and helped with 
the weed control experiments and 
with the cereal variety tests. Upon 
graduating with a M.Sc. from the Uni- 
versity of Saskatchewan in 1951, he 
joined the permanent staff of the sub- 
station as a cerealist. 

In 1950, arrangements were made 
for a cooperative program to investi- 
gate the pollination of alfalfa by 
honey bees. This project was under- 
taken jointly by the Apiculture Divi- 
sion and Forage Division of the 
Experimental Farms Service, and the 
Entomology Division of the Science 
Service, with the Regina Substation 
being selected as headquarters for 
the work. For the summers of 1951, 
1952, and 1953, Mr. Peter Pankiw 
came to Regina from Ottawa to work 
on the project. Mr. Pankiw also 
conducted tests to evaluate the 
effects of 2,4-D on honey bees. 




The new studies being done by Roe 
Foster, Ed Molberg, and Ted Hurd 
meant that more support staff was 
needed. In 1947, Bert Smith was taken 
on permanent staff, and in 1949 
William Wells was hired and contin- 
ued to work at the substation until 
1951. That year Phil Mueller was 
hired, and the following year, 1952, 
saw the arrival of Laurie Patterson. 
Both Phil and Laurie are still with the 
station. Of course, temporary summer 
staff was hired as needed and as 
funds allowed. 

above 

Winter 1946-47 
Substation, snowbound. 

below 

Edward Samuel Molberg, Acting Officer in 
Charge, 1947-1948. 



21 












- '■ 



above 

Spring 1952 

Mr. Ed Molberg applying 2,4-D to oats on 
different dates. On windy days, shields 
were used to prevent spray drifting to 
adjacent plots. 

above right 

Spring 1952 

Dusting wild mustard in wheat with 2.4-D. 

center right 

Summer 1952 

Left to right: E. A. (Ted) Hurd, -Cereal 
Breeder at substation; E. S. Hopkins, 
Director, Experimental Farms Service, 
1949-1954; and J. Roe Foster, Super- 
intendent of Regina Experimental 
Substation, standing in a field of OAC 21 
barley. 

below right 
Summer 1952 

Aerial view from southeast. 
Sinton Farm is in the lower right. The 
house to the south of the grove of trees 
remains as the caretaker's residence. The 
Experimental Substation is the small 
group of white buildings in the upper left, 
and the road running from left to righ 
29th Avenue. Wascana Country Club lies 
between Sinton Farm and Wascana C 
: '9th Avenue. 





22 




tf t STftt..T 
■J 3 U,"- 31 




above left 

1951 

Aerial view of substation from the east. 

below left 

Spring 1952 

Sprayer, with milk can, used for spraying 

small areas with many different chemicals. 



above right 

1950 

Old Post Office building, which housed 

the first year-round office of the 

Regina Experimental Substation from 

1950 to 1954. 

below right 

Summer 1950 

Mr. J. Roe Foster speaking at field day. 



23 



Spring 1952 

Nylon tent and air compressor used in 
applying 2,4-D combined with fertilizer 
elements. Stakes show locations of the 
treatments in the field. 




The lease for the land rented from 
McCallum Hill & Co., Ltd. expired in 
1947 and was renewed for yearly pe- 
riods until 1950 when the land was fi- 
nally sold and the substation lost 
64 ha of land. Fortunately, in late 1949 
Roe Foster was able to lease the land 
known as the Ross Estate, which 
formed the eastern half-section ad- 
joining the substation property. Thus, 
the Regina Station was able to have 
the use of all the land in Section 8, 
Township 17, Range 19, West of the 
2nd Meridian. Roe Foster strongly 
urged the federal government to buy 
the Ross Estate and frequently wrote 
long letters on the subject to Dr. E. S. 
Hopkins, Director of the Experimental 
Farms Service, and to Mr. J. G. 
Taggart, Deputy Minister of Agricul- 
ture. This was the same Mr. Taggart 
who had founded the substation in 
1931, and who therefore might be ex- 
pected to be sympathetic toward its 
future. However, the Ross Estate was 
not purchased and the substation had 
to be content with the rental of the 
property until the station was moved 
to its new location in the early 1960s. 



Ever since Roe Foster had been ap- 
pointed to the Regina Substation in 
1945, he was tireless in trying to get 
new buildings to replace those dating 
from the early 1930s, which were, by 
then, in a very poor state of repair. 
Perhaps as a result of his constant 
memos and directives to Indian Head 
and Ottawa, a construction program 
was finally started in 1948. In 
September of that year electric power 
was installed, and in November, a 
dugout was excavated and a well, 
complete with a filtration system, was 
dug to provide a water supply for the 
substation. A septic tank was install- 
ed, an agronomy building was con- 
structed, the implement shed was 
moved and enlarged, and a start was 
made on the construction of the 
superintendent's house, which was 
completed in 1949. To alleviate the 
crowded conditions in the bunkhouse, 
Roe Foster "borrowed" a bunkhouse 
from the PFRA in 1952. To improve 
the looks of the site, several hundred 
Colorado spruce and caragana hedges 
were planted around the substation 
buildings during 1949 and 1950. 

There was still no permanent office 
space and during the latter part of the 
1940s, suitable premises were rented 
during the winter in Regina, as had 
generally been the custom. However, 
in 1950 a permanent office was rented 



in the old Post Office building, and 
Miss Margaret Debenham became the 
first typist at the substation. Later 
Miss Kay Loree was to become secre- 
tary and typist. 

Sometime during 1948 or 1949, no 
one is sure of the exact year, Regina 
became an independent substation 
directly responsible to Ottawa rather 
than to the Superintendent of the 
Indian Head Experimental Farm. 

Mr. W. H. Gibson retired as Super- 
intendent at Indian Head in 1949 and 
was replaced by Mr. J. G. Davidson. 
On the latter's retirement in 1953, Roe 
Foster was appointed Superintendent 
of the Indian Head Experimental Farm 
in July of that year, a position he held 
until his retirement in 1972. Mr. Roe 
Foster died in the summer of 1977, a 
few weeks before his 70th birthday. 

Stories about Mr. Foster are numer- 
ous, and he seems to have been both 
a colorful and a forceful person. The 
period of his association with the 
substation saw great changes in the 
number of permanent staff, the start 
of a building program, and the devel- 
opment of research programs suited 
to postwar farming needs. 



24 



CHAPTER 5 



The Regina Experimental Farm 



1953-1962 

In July 1953, Mr. H. W. Leggett 
became the next Superintendent of 
the Regina Experimental Substation. 
An Albertan, Harry Wright Leggett 
was born on August 16, 1915. He at- 
tended the University of Alberta, 
where he received his B.Sc. degree in 
1941. Following war service with the 
RCAF, Mr. Leggett undertook further 
studies at the University of Saskat- 
chewan, graduating from the College 
of Agriculture in 1946 with a B.S.A. 
That same year, he joined the staff of 
the Dominion Experimental Farm at 
Lacombe, Alta., as an agronomist in 
charge of the Field Husbandry Sec- 
tion, and remained there until his ap- 
pointment to Regina. 

For the most part, the period 1954- 
1962 were good years for the station. 
In early 1954 the status of the Regina 
Experimental Substation was raised 
to that of a fully fledged experimental 
farm. Staff increases were sanc- 
tioned, the work done at the farm was 
expanded with new lines of research 
being undertaken, and finally the long 
awaited building program was imple- 
mented. 

Once the decision was made to im- 
prove the facilities at Regina, no time 
was lost. A boardinghouse was built 
in 1954, as was an office-laboratory 
building. The latter meant that the 
Regina Farm had finally become a 
functional year-round establishment. 
In 1955, a machine shed was con- 
structed and a year later the Miller's 
house was extensively remodeled to 
form the foreman's residence. A seed 
plant was built in 1957, as well as a 
greenhouse, which had as its head- 
house the old bunkhouse. Some land- 
scaping was also done in 1958. By 
1962, with the move to a new location 
imminent, the boardinghouse was 
converted into office quarters, and the 
tradition of providing accommodation 
for staff was discontinued. 




lives. She has not forgotten her many 
years at Regina and sends a card to 
the staff of the Research Station 
every Christmas. 

In 1959, Bert Smith retired at the 
age of 69, having been granted three 
yearly work extensions. Bert contin- 
ued to live in the boardinghouse for a 
few years before moving into the city. 
An avid table tennis player, he do- 
nated a table tennis trophy to the sta- 
tion in 1958, shortly before his retire- 
ment. Mr. Smith died on April 9, 1969 
at the age of 78. 

Bernard Bosgoed, Bill Watt, and 
Tony Zimmerman joined the field staff 
of the experimental farm in 1954. 
Tony Zimmerman and his wife Gert 
also ran the boardinghouse from its 
opening in 1955 until 1957 when Bill 
Watt and his wife Kay accepted that 
responsibility. Mr. and Mrs. Watt man- 
aged the boardinghouse until it was 
converted into offices in 1962. While 
looking after the boardinghouse the 
Zimmermans, and later the Watts, 
lived in the foreman's residence. 




above 

Summer 1953 

Southeast view of Superintendent's house. 

below 

Harry Wright Leggett, Superintendent, 
1953-1962. 



It is sad to relate, but Mr. and Mrs. 
Miller did not move into the new fore- 
man's residence. George Miller died 
on February 14, 1955 at the age of 66, 
having worked at the experimental 
farm a year past the normal retire- 
ment age. Mrs. Miller continued to 
look after the boardinghouse for a few 
months, then in September 1955 
moved to Delta, B.C., where she still 



Kay Loree came from the office in 
the city to be stenographer and typist 
at the experimental farm until 1956, 
when Mary Gilhooly took over the sec- 
retarial duties. Mary remained with 
the farm until her retirement in 1980, 
by which time she was office man- 
ager. Miss Gilhooly also made coffee 
for the staff every day for nearly 25 
years. 



25 



In April 1957, Dr. J. D. Banting 
joined the professional staff as a 
plant physiologist to. work on the 
problems caused by wild oats. During 
the 1930s, drought conditions had not 
favored the growth of this weed, but 
with the new moisture-conserving 
practices now in general farm use, 
and with the successful control of 
wild mustard using 2,4-D, wild oats 
became the major weed in the early 
1950s. Jim Banting, born in Saskat- 
chewan, had a farming background. 
After war service with the RCAF, he 
attended the University of Saskatche- 
wan and the University of Alberta. 
Until his retirement in 1978, Dr. 
Banting worked on methods to con- 
trol wild oats. 

During the 1950s many studies on 
soil erosion, soil fertility, tillage, and 
crop rotations were completed and 
discontinued. Thus, control of weeds 
became a major program at the farm. 
Mr. Molberg made considerable prog- 
ress in developing both cultural and 
chemical methods for the control of 
wild oats, and tested the effects of 
more than 40 different herbicides on 
thfs weed. Three of the most effective 
of these herbicides were diallate, trial- 
late, and barban. Diallate and barban, 
first tested at Regina in 1958, proved 
so successful for wild oat control that 
diallate was recommended for com- 
mercial use in flax, and barban was 
recommended for trial use in wheat 
and barley in 1960. Diallate was even- 
tually replaced by triallate. Other 
chemical studies done by Ed Molberg 
included the use of monuron as a soil 
sterilant for the control of perennial 
grasses and other weeds, and the use 
of borax for controlling leafy spurge. 
Dr. Banting commenced his studies 
on the growth habits and dormancy of 
wild oats and the viability of wild oat 
seeds, and further investigated chemi- 
cal and cultural methods for wild oat 
control. In 1957, he initiated studies 
to monitor the longevity and dorman- 
cy behavior of wild oat seeds in natur- 
ally and artificially infested soils. 

The cereal investigations were con- 
tinued, and the testing of cereal varie- 
ties recommended for the south cen- 
tral and southeastern regions of Sas- 
katchewan was expanded by Dr. Hurd, 
who had, during this period, gained 
his Ph.D. from the University of Mani- 
toba. The cereal breeding program 
was maintained to develop quality 





above 

1950s 

Bernard Bosgoed sits aboard new Massey- 

Harris combine. 

below 

Spring 1954 

New boardingrrouse. The old bunkhouse is 

on the immediate left of and slightly 

behind the new boardinghouse. The 

original office from 1931 is on far left. 



26 





above left 

Summer 1957 

Dr. Jim Banting speaking on chemical 

control of wild oats to farmers attending 

the annual field day. 

above right 

Summer 1958 

Grounds on the Experimental Farm remain 
green, thanks to dugout water and a new 
irrigation system. 

below 
Spring 1961 

Patterson sprayer. This small plot sprayer 
was designed by Laurie Patterson specifi- 
cally for applying chemicals to research 
plots. When spraying rod-row plots (5-m 
plots), half a plot on either side could be 
done with each pass; if 3-m yield plots 
were being sprayed, a full plot on each 
side could be done. 
Sitting on the tractor is Gordy McCrystal. 



rust-resistant wheats that would give 
good yields under the semi-arid condi- 
tions of southern Saskatchewan. Ce- 
real crosses were continued to breed 
wheat varieties resistant to wheat 
stem sawfly. Crosses made in the late 
1950s and early 1960s by Dr. Ted Hurd 
and Mr. Laurie Patterson resulted, 
several years later, in the regis- 
tration of the durum wheats Wascana 
and Wakooma, and the spring wheat 
Sinton. 

Sinton wheat was named in honor 
of Robert Sinton who had homestead- 
ed in the Regina area in 1882, on land 



that was to become the new site of 
the Regina Experimental Farm. The 
Sinton farm (Section 4, Township 17, 
Range 19, West of the 2nd Meridian) 
was situated approximately 1.6 km 
southeast of the Regina Experimental 
Farm and leased by the Experimental 
Farms Service in 1954 so that addi- 
tional cereal studies could be under- 
taken. There were several buildings 
on the Sinton farm, including a farm 
manager's house into which Bernard 
and Mary Bosgoed moved in 1954. 



27 








below 



This extra land was needed 
because the Regina farm had become, 
in 1955, the center in the Department 
of Agriculture for the seed increase of 
newly developed cereal varieties for 
distribution after licensing. This work 
resulted in the building of the seed 
plant at the farm in 1957. From 1955 
to 1961, bulk quantities of seed of 
Ramsey, Pembina, and Canthatch 
wheat, Parkland, Pelissier, Betzes, 
and Keystone barley, and Raja and 
Cree flax were increased, cleaned, 
and bagged at the farm. Although the 
seed increase work for the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture was being done 
at Regina, the main seed office for 
the overall administration of the pro- 
gram was in Winnipeg at the research 
station there, under the supervision of 
Mr. A. B. Masson, B.S.A., M.Sc, who 
was also a cereal breeder. During the 
summer, Mr. Masson would come to 
Regina to oversee operations being 
conducted by Bernard Bosgoed, who 
has been in charge of the day-to-day 
running of the seed plant since 1957. 

Work at the farm seemed to be pro- 
ceeding satisfactorily and Mr. Leggett 
was justifiably proud of the way every- 
thing was progressing. Field employ- 
ees from that period recall that every 
Saturday morning they reported to Mr. 
Leggett, who assigned them duties 
designed to improve the appearance 
of the grounds and buildings. 

However, there were clouds on the 
horizon that were to have a profound 
effect on the future development of 
the Regina Experimental Farm. 

A reorganization within the Federal 
Department of Agriculture in early 
1959 resulted in the formation of a 
Research Branch, integrating the work 
formerly carried out by the Experi- 
mental Farms Service and the 
Science Service. Under the Research 
Branch, the work being undertaken by 
the Experimental Farms was to 
become more research oriented, with 
scientists from different disciplines 
being brought together to solve agri- 
cultural problems. As a result of the 
new philosophy, some experimental 
farms were threatened with closure 
and the extension work involving Illus- 
tration Stations was discontinued. At 
one point, it seemed that the Regina 
Experimental Farm might suffer the 
same fate, and representations were 
made by farmers and agricultural 



28 



organizations from the Regina district 
to government officials for the farm's 
continuance. Both Mr. Leggett and Dr. 
K. Rasmussen, the Assistant Director 
General (Western) of the Research 
Branch, made such reasoned argu- 
ments to Dr. C. H. Goulden, the Direc- 
tor General of the Research Branch, 
to retain the services of the Regina 
Experimental Farm that later, in 
response to a question in the House 
of Commons, the Minister of Agri- 
culture, the Hon. D. S. Harkness, 
categorically denied that the farm was 
to be phased out. 

The next trouble to beset the exper- 
imental farm came in 1960 when the 
Province of Saskatchewan began its 
search for a location in Regina on 
which to build a new university 
campus. At the turn of the century, it 
had been arbitrarily decided that 
Regina would become the capital of 
the province, while Saskatoon should 
have the University of Saskatchewan. 
By the late 1950s, the population of 
Regina had risen to nearly 75 000 and 
a second university was considered 
necessary. 

As Regina had grown, the experi- 
mental farm was no longer 3 km out- 
side the city, but had been absorbed 
by it. The city and the province wish- 
ed to maintain the land on either side 
of Wascana Creek, which ran through 
the city, as a park for provincial 
buildings, and the Wascana Centre 
Authority had been organized to plan 
and develop this concept. These 
plans called for the acquisition of 
further land adjoining the creek for 
the site of the new university, the 
ideal location for which seemed to be 
the land occupied by the Regina 
Experimental Farm. 

The federal government was ap- 
proached by provincial representa- 
tives who offered a 25-year lease on 
the Wagoner property, currently own- 
ed by the Saskatchewan government, 
provided the Regina Experimental 
Farm moved to the Sinton farm and 
relinquish its leasehold rights to the 
original half-section of land leased 
from the province in 1940 for a 99-year 
period. 

Mr. Leggett approached the Sinton 
family, with the result that the prop- 
erty was bought by the Department of 
Agriculture for use by the Experi- 





4 L 



29 



mental Farm, at a cost of $562.50 a 
hectare. The land title to the Sinton 
farm was formally acquired on June 
21, 1961. Mr. Leggett then persuaded 
the provincial government to turn over 
to the federal government outright 
title to the Wagoner property in return 
for the renouncement of its rights to 
the substation land originally nego- 
tiated by Mr. Taggart in 1931. 

Although the 128-ha Wagoner prop- 
erty, situated on the East half of Sec- 
tion 32, Township 16, Range 19, West 
of the 2nd Meridian, was not officially 
transferred to the Department of Agri- 
culture until January 1, 1963, the 
Regina Experimental Farm took pos- 
session of the land in late 1961. That 
year the Bosgoed family moved to the 
house on the Wagoner farm, and their 
place in the Sinton farm manager's 
house was eventually taken by the 
Zimmermans, who remained there 
until Tony Zimmerman's retirement in 
1976. Thus, as a result of Mr. Leggett's 
efforts, the Regina Experimental Farm 
was relocated on 352 ha of adjoining 
land entirely owned by the federal 
government. 

Having done so much to ensure the 
continuance of the experimental farm, 
Harry Leggett left Regina in July 1962 
to become Emergency Measures Offi- 
cer for the Canada Department of 
Agriculture in Ottawa, Later, he 
became Chief of the Grains Division. 
Mr. Leggett, who still resides in 
Ottawa, is now officially retired from 
government service, and employed by 
the Canadian Seed Growers' Asso- 
ciation. 




* V i> nV fc \ m minim * M . JL 

fcx^Ts^j.:.. ........ 



•VkVS4»»- 




above 

January 1961 

Aerial view of Experimental Farm from the 
south. Winnipeg Street runs north and 
cuts left to Old Broad Street bridge. 



below 
1961 

Foreman's Residence. This building 
consists of a new front portion, shown 
here, and a renovated rear section. The 
rear section was part of the residence 
built on the substation in the mid-1930s 
and occupied at that time by George and 
Stella Miller. 



30 



CHAPTER 6 



The Regina Research Station 



1962-1981 

The policies formulated by the 
Executive of the newly formed Re- 
search Branch brought about changes 
that were to affect the Regina 
Experimental Farm for the next 20 
years. Some of these changes were 
minor, such as changing the name 
Experimental Farms to Research Sta- 
tions, with directors in charge instead 
of superintendents. Greater changes 
occurred at the Central Experimental 
Farm in Ottawa; instead of the former 
organization of divisions, the new 
structure embraced research insti- 
tutes, regional laboratories, and re- 
search stations as complete research 
units dealing with specific problems. 
A program directorate composed of 
senior scientists was set up to assist 
in the development and coordination 
of the research programs to be under- 
taken by the institutes, laboratories, 
and stations. The new facilities were 
staffed by scientists representing a 
number of disciplines in order that 
various aspects of agricultural prob- 
lems could be studied at each loca- 
tion. This system is essentially the 
same today, except that regional 
directors general are no longer in 
Ottawa. Dr. Art Guitard, the present 
Director General for the Western 
Research Stations, has his office in 
Saskatoon. 

The future programs for the Regina 
Research Station were considered by 
the Research Branch in 1961, with the 
result that, as before, the three main 
functions were to be weed control re- 
search, cereal breeding, and the seed 
increase of new cereal and forage 
crop varieties being developed by the 
Research Branch. 

Mr. Leggett left for Ottawa in July 
1962, and Dr. J. R. Hay became the 
new Director of the Regina Research 
Station. James Robert Hay was born 
on October 19, 1925 in Ontario. He 
graduated from the Ontario Agricultur- 
al College in 1949 with a B.S.A., and 
went on to undertake graduate stud- 
ies, which earned him an M.S. from 
South Dakota State College at 
Brookings, S. Dak., in 1951, and a 
Ph.D. from Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Mass., in 1955. He spe- 
cialized in plant physiology, and in 
1955 joined the Field Husbandry Divi- 
sion (reorganized in 1959 as Plant 
Research Institute) of the Central 




ff 



^8H w$ 



left 

James Robert Hay, Director, 1962-1980. 

below 

Spring 1962 

The seed-cleaning plant. 




Experimental Farm in Ottawa. By 
1962, Dr. Hay was Head of the Weed 
Research Section at the Institute. In 
April 1962, he was transferred to the 
Regina Research Station to head up 
the weed control work. 

With the extensive use of herbi- 
cides by the end of the 1960s, con- 
cerns about their environmental im- 
pact were also recognized. Thus, the 
long-term weed control program 
called for studies in the areas of 
agronomy, ecology, plant physiology, 
biochemistry, soil science, and chem- 
istry. The agronomic work was to be 
directed toward the control of all 
weeds in field crops, and the ecologi- 
cal studies were to include surveys of 
weed populations on the prairies, and 
the collection of information on life 



histories of weeds. Plant physiologi- 
cal research was required to study the 
dormancy of weed seeds and the 
growth and development of weeds. 
The mode of action of herbicides was 
also to be investigated. Scientists 
with training in biochemistry, soil 
science, and chemistry were neces- 
sary to study the fate and degradation 
of herbicides both in the plants and 
soil, and their impact on environ- 
mental quality. During the next 20 
years this overall program for weed 
research has been successfully 
developed. 



31 



Dr. Hay's early months at the Re- 
search Station must have been as 
chaotic as those experienced by Mr. 
Chepil 30 years earlier. Not only was 
there the research program to orga- 
nize, but also the move to the Sinton 
farm to supervise. Unfortunately, this 
move did not merely involve transfer- 
ring a couple of small buildings and 
some equipment, which was all Mr. 
Taggart and Mr. Chepil had to over- 
see. It was a large-scale operation 
concerning the transfer of staff, 
equipment, and five large build- 
ings—the seed plant, the machine 
shed, the greenhouse, the laboratory- 
office building, and the small agron- 
omy building that was to become the 
chemical storage shed. 

The move began in 1962 and was 
not completed until the winter of 
1963-64 with the arrival of office staff 
and scientists. During this time, and 
with the exception of the superinten- 
dent's house, the foreman's resi- 
dence, and the boardinghouse, which 
were sold, the various buildings were 
transferred to the new location. Then, 
almost immediately, a building pro- 
gram was started with extensions 
being made, in 1962, to the machine 
shed and the seed plant. In 1963, the 
agronomy building was constructed, 
and a year later a pump house was 
erected to pump wastes into the 
sewage lagoon. A machine shop and 
garage complex was built in 1965. 

Despite the confusion, more profes- 
sional staff was engaged to imple- 
ment the weed research program at 
the Research Station. Dr. J. F. Alex 
arrived in 1962 and a year later Dr. R. 
Grover came. 



In early 1964, Mr. Ed Molberg was 
the agronomist working on cultural 
and chemical methods for weed con- 
trol. Dr. Banting was conducting dor- 
mancy and viability studies with wild 
oat seeds, and commencing basic 
studies to determine the mode of 
action of wild oat herbicides. He was 
also developing more efficient soil 
incorporation procedures to increase 
the selectivity of the newly discovered 
wild oat chemicals, diallate and trial- 
late. Dr. Hurd was responsible for the 
cereal breeding and seed increase 
programs, which had remained 
unchanged. 

Dr. Jack Alex, plant ecologist and 
taxonomist, received his training at 
the University of Saskatchewan and 
Washington State University. Before 



coming to Regina he worked at the 
Plant Research Institute in Ottawa. 
Jack Alex remained at the Regina 
Research Station until 1968, when he 
left to take up a position with the 
University of Guelph. During his years 
at Regina he started the herbarium, 
carried out competition studies be- 
tween various weeds and crops, and 
made a large-scale survey of prairie 
weeds. 

Dr. Rajbans Grover received his 
education both in India and in the 
United States. Before his appointment 
to the Regina Research Station, he 
had just started work on the bio- 
chemical aspects of tree seed dor- 
mancy at the Dominion Forest 
Nursery Station, Indian Head. A plant 
physiologist and biochemist by train- 




above 

Spring 1962 

Greenhouse, Experimental Farm. Head- 
house is former bunkhouse originally built 
in 1930s. 

below 

Fall 1962 

Office and laboratory building. 




32 





I* 



Rajbans Grover, Acting Director, 1980- 

right 

1968 

The Prairie Farm Rehabilitation 

Administration (PFRA) workshop at 1305 

Ottawa Street was the 'home' of Drs. 

Banting, Grover, Mclntyre, and Smith and 

their staff until laboratories were built at 

the Research Station in 1971. 

ing, during his years at the station 
Raj Grover has initiated the program 
on the movement of herbicides in the 
environment after their application. 
This work has included research into 
drift losses during spraying, and post- 
application losses such as leaching, 
runoff from treated fields in spring 
flooding, and volatilization. 

The appointment of Dr. Grover was 
a break from the traditional practice 
at Regina of hiring professional staff 
with farming background, or agricul- 
tural degrees, and was in keeping 
with the Research Branch policy of 
employing scientists from different 
disciplines. 

Because of the shortage of space 
at the Research Station, Drs. Banting 
and Grover had, in 1963, temporary 
office and laboratory space in a PFRA 
warehouse at 1305 Ottawa Street, in 
the northeastern part of Regina. 
Although the conditions were spartan 
and the laboratory was located about 
6 km from the main Research Station, 
work was started and progress made. 

The weed section gained the serv- 
ices of Dr. G. I. Mclntyre in 1964. 
Gordon Mclntyre, who had received 
training as a botanist and plant 
physiologist, both in Britain and in 
the United States, joined Drs. Banting 




] "1 1""} ItjugJI 



1 






and Grover, in what was euphemisti- 
cally called the downtown lab. There 
he started work on the physiology and 
development of perennial weeds, a 
project that he is still continuing. 

In 1964, the duties associated with 
the cereals program at the Regina 
Research Station were divided so that 
there were now three sections— the 
Weed Section, the Cereal Breeding 
Section, and now, the Seed Section. 
Dr. Hurd retained the responsibility 
for the cereal breeding projects, but 
the new Seed Section was organized 
to cover, not only the seed increase 
work already being undertaken, but to 
carry out variety verification tests, 
and to maintain the Canadian genetic 
seed stocks for the Department of 
Agriculture. On January 1, 1964, Mr. 
G. R. Boughton, B.S.A., M.Sc, trans- 
ferred from the Regina Office of the 
Plant Products Division of Canada De- 
partment of Agriculture to the Seed 
Section at the Regina Research 
Station. 

As mentioned in Chapter 5, Mr. 
Masson of the Winnipeg Research 
Station was in charge of the seed 
increase work at Regina. With the 
additional responsibilities assigned to 
the new Seed Section, Mr. Masson 
came to Regina from Winnipeg in 
1965 to take overall charge of the sec- 



tion and its various activities. How- 
ever, his stay was relatively short; the 
next year he transferred to the Pro- 
duction and Marketing Branch of 
Canada Department of Agriculture, in 
Ottawa. His position at Regina was 
taken, in 1966, by Mr. E. D. Mallough, 
B.S.A., formerly with the Plant Prod- 
ucts Division in Regina. 

Dave Mallough was to remain in 
charge of the Seed Section until 1979, 
when he left Regina to go to Tanzania 
with a CIDA-sponsored program. To- 
day Glenn Boughton looks after the 
affairs of the Seed Section. It should 
be mentioned here that since October 
1966, the winter production of plant 
breeding material has been carried 
out at Brawley, Calif., by members of 
the Seed Section. 

Mr. G. G. Bowes came to the 
Research Station from the University 
of Manitoba, after receiving his M.Sc. 
in 1966, and started a research pro- 
gram to study the effects of weeds on 
rangeland and native pastures and to 
develop cultural and chemical meth- 
ods for their control. In December 
1968, Garry Bowes was granted a 
3-year educational leave to study for 
his Ph.D. degree, which he obtained 
at the University of Guelph. 



33 



right 

1968 

South view of farm foreman's residence 

and office, taken from the site of the 

present office-laboratory building. Today, 

the office is a library. 

opposite page • left 

April 1974 

A sandbag dike protects the sewage lift 

station from spring flooding. 

opposite page • right 

September 1977 

John Mitton harvests crop tests with a 

hand sickle. 





In February 1967, Dr. Ted Hurd left 
the station for a 3-year assignment at 
the Plant Breeding Station at Njoro, 
Kenya. On his return to Canada in 
1970, he was transferred to the 
Research Station at Swift Current to 
take charge of the cereal breeding 
program there. His move from Regina 
meant the end of the formal cereal 
breeding program at the Research 
Station, although the evaluation of 
cereal varieties was still continued by 
Laurie Patterson. 

During the late 1960s, increases in 
the numbers of both professional and 
support staff resulted in a chronic 
space shortage at the Research Sta- 
tion. In 1966, detailed plans were 
completed for an office-laboratory 
complex to house all the staff. How- 
ever, because of government auster- 
ity, this was never built and the 
Research Station had to continue with 
overcrowded facilities for several 
more years. The space rented from 
the PFRA in 1963 was equally con- 
gested. In 1967, Dr. Raj Grover spent 
a sabbatical year with the Weed 
Research Organization at Oxford, 
England, and during his absence, his 
office and laboratory space was used 
by Dr. A. E. Smith, who had just been 
appointed to the staff. Trained in 
Britain and in the United States, Dr. 
Allan Smith had worked on the fate of 
herbicides in the environment for an 
industrial concern, before coming to 
Canada. At Regina he was to develop 



sensitive procedures for the extrac- 
tion and analysis of herbicide resi- 
dues from soils and waters, and study 
the soil persistence of such chemi- 
cals under prairie field conditions. 

On Dr. Grover's return in 1968, Dr. 
Mclntyre went to Ottawa for a year to 
investigate the development of the 
root systems of quack grass and leafy 
spurge. However, the exchange of 
space in the downtown lab. was most 
unsatisfactory. At last a building pro- 
gram was sanctioned and in 1968 an 
extension to the agronomy building, 
incorporating office, laboratory, and 
growth chamber facilities was con- 
structed for use by Gordon Mclntyre. 

A further office-laboratory complex 
was started in late 1970 and com- 
pleted in the spring of 1971, so that 
Drs. Banting, Grover, and Smith, 
together with their technical help, 
could leave the temporary quarters in 
the city. Thus, almost 10 years after 
leaving the old site, the entire staff 
was finally united in one facility. The 
staff of the Research Station was 
happy when in 1973, the dirt road 
leading to the station was paved, and 
drivers no longer had to contend with 
quagmire conditions after a rainfall. 

Mr. Keith Best joined the Research 
Station in 1970, as weed biologist and 
taxonomist. A long-time member of 
the staff at the Swift Current Re- 
search Station, he had recently been 
attending the University of Manitoba, 
and came to Regina on being awarded 



an M.Sc. Before his retirement in 
1978, Keith Best enlarged the her- 
barium and identified numerous plant 
specimens sent in by farmers and the 
general public. 

Mr. Ed Molberg was due to retire in 
1974. His work involving the testing of 
new and experimental herbicides, and 
their effects on both weeds and 
crops, was considered so important 
that it was decided there should be 
no pause in the continuity of these 
studies. Thus, in 1971 Dr. J. H. 
Hunter, who had just been granted a 
Ph.D. from the University of Manitoba, 
was appointed to take over this re- 
search on Mr. Molberg's retirement. 

Two more research scientists were 
added to the staff in 1971. Dr. S. U. 
Khan, a soil chemist, was transferred 
to Regina from the Research Station 
at Lacombe to undertake work on the 
interaction of herbicides with various 
soil colloids; and Mr. G. S. Emmond. a 
soil scientist, came from the Experi- 
mental Farm at Indian Head to work 
on herbicide residues in soils. Dr. 
Khan left in 1973 to accept a position 
with the Chemistry and Biology Re- 
search Institute in Ottawa, and 
Mr. Emmond resigned in 1974 to take 
a post with the B.C. Department of 
Agriculture. 

In 1972, a new dimension was 
added to the science of weed control 
at Regina, with the transfer of three 
entomologists from the Research 



34 



I 



••>, AiUA. 







1 *U , 



Institute at Belleville, Ont. Dr. Peter 
Harris, Dr. Diether P. Peschken, and 
Mr. Murray G. Maw, all of whom had 
received training both in Canada and 
Europe, came to work on the biologi- 
cal control of weeds. Also in 1972, a 
new laboratory with greenhouse and 
quarantine facilities was constructed 
for the screening of the candidate 
insects that were to be released to 
control specific weeds. Their program 
provides a nationwide service. 

With the completion of the con- 
struction work for the biological con- 
trol unit in 1972, no further improve- 
ments were made until 1980 when the 
car park and some of the access 
roads were paved, and an addition to 
the headhouse of the old greenhouse 
was built. 

By the end of 1972, administration 
of the various programs was be- 
coming unwieldly. Essentially there 
were only two sections. Dave 
Mallough and Glenn Boughton were 
in the Seed Section and the rest of 
the staff were in the Weed Section. 
Clearly some rearrangement was nec- 
essary. Accordingly, four sections 
were organized: the Biological Control 
of Weeds Section with Dr. P. Harris 
(head), Mr. M. G. Maw, and Dr. D. P. 
Peschken; the Weed Control Section 
with Dr. J. D. Banting (head), Mr. K. F. 
Best, Dr. G. G. Bowes, Dr. J. H. 
Hunter, Dr. G. I. Mclntyre, and Mr. 
E. S. Molberg; the Herbicide Behav- 
iour in the Environment Section with 



Dr. R. Grover (head), Mr. G. S. 
Emmond, Dr. S. U. Khan, and Dr. A. E. 
Smith; and the Seed Section with Mr. 
E. D. Mallough (head) and Mr. G. R. 
Boughton. 

Another important unit was the 
Maintenance Section, which kept the 
station's services functioning effi- 
ciently. Tony Zimmerman was in 
charge of the Maintenance Section 
until 1976, when Charlie Gelowitz took 
over. When Charlie Gelowitz left 
government service in 1978, Basil 
Parks came from the Brandon Re- 
search Station to look after the 
section. 

By 1973, the Research Station was 
considered important enough to rate 
an administrative officer to help 
Dr. Hay with the burgeoning paper 
work. Mr. Don Gourlay filled that posi- 
tion in 1973. The appointment of a 
library technician occurred in 1973, 
and the library, instead of being a 
collection of books and journals 
under the ministrations of a commit- 
tee of scientists, came under the care 
of trained library personnel. Mrs. Joan 
McDonald was library technician from 
1973 until 1977, when Miss Charlotte 
Vanstone took over the duties. 

On the retirement of Mr. Roe Foster 
in 1973, the Indian Head Experimental 
Farm became a substation of Regina. 

During the 1970s, scientific staff 
appointments continued. A new 
national program on the generation of 



herbicide residue data for minor crops 
was assigned to the station. To carry 
out this program, Dr. Allan Cessna, an 
organic chemist from the University 
of Saskatchewan, joined the Herbi- 
cide Behaviour in the Environment 
Section in 1974 to analyze for herbi- 
cide residues in minor crops. In 1975, 
Dr. A. Gordon Thomas, a weed ecolo- 
gist from the University of Guelph, 
came to the station to conduct 
research on population dynamics of 
weeds. In his relatively short time in 
the Weed Control Section, Gordon 
Thomas has successfully developed a 
national weed survey program and 
carried out several weed surveys for 
Saskatchewan, Manitoba, British 
Columbia, Newfoundland, and Prince 
Edward Island. Dr. Andrew Hsiao, a 
plant physiologist with training from 
Taiwan, Canada, and the United 
States, started work in the Weed Con- 
trol Section in 1977 on the germina- 
tion mechanisms and dormancy of 
wild oats and other weed seeds. A 
year later Dr. Larry Hume, an ecolo- 
gist trained at the University of West- 
ern Ontario, joined the Weed Control 
Section to conduct research into crop 
losses caused by weeds. The most 
recent addition to the Regina Re- 
search Station arrived on January 2, 
1981, when Dr. Knud Mortensen be- 
came a member of the Biological Con- 
trol Section. With training in plant 
pathology from both Denmark and 
Canada, Dr. Mortensen will investi- 
gate the use of rust diseases as weed 
control agents. 



35 



By 1978, the Weed Control Section 
had become quite large, and on the 
retirement of Dr. Banting that year it 
was reorganized into two sections— 
the Weed Ecology Section with Dr. 
A. G. Thomas (head), Dr. G. G. Bowes, 
and Dr. L. Hume; and the Weed 
Physiology Section with Dr. G. I. 
Mclntyre (head), Dr. A. I. Hsiao, and 
Dr. J. H. Hunter. 

The retirement of Mr. Molberg in 
1974 and of Dr. Banting in 1978 were 
sad occasions, for both scientists had 
done excellent research at the Re- 
search Station. Ed Molberg had a very 
perceptive eye and would often stand 
in front of his plot treatments and 
make observations that were not 
easily apparent to other people. Many 
of the conclusions he drew were of 
importance and had a lasting effect. 
He discovered that benazolin would 
control mustard in rape seed. Before 
this, there were no chemical treat- 
ments that would control this weed in 
the oilseed crop without extensive 
crop damage. Ed Molberg also found 
that wild oats could be controlled in 
flax using asulam, and that propanil 
would control green foxtail in cereals. 

Perhaps Jim Banting's most signi- 
ficant contribution, beyond the fact 
that he was one of Canada's foremost 
experts on wild oats, was his develop- 
ment of practical application meth- 
odology for the treatment of soil with 
the wild oat herbicide triallate. By 
incorporating this chemical into the 
top 5 cm of soil, Dr. Banting showed 
that the wild oats, which were mostly 
located in, or had to grow through the 
treated band, were selectively killed, 
while the wheat sown below the 
chemically treated soil would grow 
without damage. Much of Jim 
Banting's work on wild oats has been 
summarized in Agric. Can. Publ. 1531, 
Growth habits and control of wild 
oats. 





>--7l 






No history of the Regina Research 
Station would be complete without a 
word of praise for the technical and 
support staff. Often these unsung 
heroes carry out most, if not all, of a 
research scientist's program. The 
Regina Research Station has been 
lucky in that many of the staff mem- 
bers have stayed for many years. All 
the permanent staff engaged before 
1962 have been named in previous 



chapters of this history. Because it is 
not possible to name all the perma- 
nent staff members for the period 
1962-1981, they have been recorded 
in the Appendix. 

However, some long-time technical 
staff members must be mentioned. 
There is Phil Mueller, who came in 
1951 and is currently working in the 
Weed Ecology Section; Laurie 
Patterson, who started in 1952 and 



has been responsible for the develop- 
ment of agricultural equipment that 
has proved useful at this and other re- 
search stations; Bernard Bosgoed and 
Bill Watt, who joined in 1954 and are 
still going strong; Don Clemence who 
has almost 20 years of continuous 
service; Lome Kerr, who came in 1963 
to work for Dr. Raj Grover— and still 
is; Mike Schneider. Robin Wise, and 
Lee Wood who have been here 14 
years; John Mitton. who retired in 



36 



■ 



lafc 










opposite page • above 

February 1978 

Research scientists from the Biological 
Control Section remove snowdrifts from 
greenhouse roof in an attempt to keep the 
roof from collapsing. 

opposite page • below 

February 1978 

Rock-hard snowdrifts reach the eaves of 

the laboratory building following a 3-day 

blizzard. 

above 

1979 

Murray Maw and Margaret Molloy working 
on a project for the biological control of 
leafy spurge near Saskatchewan Beach. 

below 

1979 

Don Clemence watches Allan Strachan 
operate the six-row plot seeder built for 
the station at the Swift Current Station. 



1977 after 11 years; and Brian Hayden, 
who has a mere 10 years as technical 
assistant to Dr. Allan Smith and who 
also acts as station photographer and 
custodian of the darkroom. 

The announcement was made in 
late 1980 that Dr. Jim Hay, Director of 
the Regina Research Station since 
1962, was to leave at the end of the 
year to become Director of the Sas- 
katoon Research Station. During his 



career, Dr. Hay has become a well- 
known and distinguished authority on 
weeds and their control. He has been 
a very active member of the Canada 
Weed Committee, now known as the 
Expert Committee on Weeds, and 
from 1963 until 1980 was the Chair- 
man of its Research Appraisal and 
Recommendations Committee. For 9 
years, from 1969 until 1977, he was 
Chairman of the National Executive. A 
long-time member of the Weed 



Science Society of America, he was 
its President in 1979, the first Cana- 
dian to hold that office. Dr. Hay was 
elected a Fellow of that Society in 
1975. 

On Jim Hay's departure in January 
1981, Dr. Raj Grover was appointed 
Acting Director of the Regina Re- 
search Station until the position of 
Director is filled. 



37 



CHAPTER 7 
Postscript 




left 

1979 

Dr. Jim Hunter examines an experimental 

spinning-disk sprayer to be adapted for 

plot spraying. 

right 

1979 

Ron McCrystal releases an insect into a 

field cage to test its potential as a 

biological-control agent for Canada thistle. 



Although the major achievements 
of individual scientists at the Regina 
Research Station have been recorded 
in this history, mention should be 
made of the day-to-day work carried 
out during the last 20 years. This 
work, much of which seems to be un- 
spectacular and routine has, neverthe- 
less, contributed to the excellent 
reputation of the Regina Research 
Station. 

The herbicide testing program 
carried out by Ed Molberg and then by 
Jim Hunter and their staff, has meant 
the evaluation of hundreds of experi- 
mental chemicals for weed control 
and crop tolerance. All the herbicides 
registered for use in Western Canada 
have thus been tested at Regina. On a 
smaller scale, herbicide treatments 
for the control of aspen, poplar, 
balsam poplar, and prairie rose in pas- 
tures have been developed by Garry 
Bowes and adopted for general use. 

Garry Bowes and Jim Hunter have 
been responsible for the development 
of computer programs that will enable 
herbicide data from weed control and 
crop tolerance studies, gathered from 
scientists across Western Canada, to 
be collated and printed in a form for 
use by the Expert Committee on 
Weeds. 



The Biological Control of Weeds 
Section has an international reputa- 
tion for the control of weeds using 
released insects. Not only has the 
section developed criteria, subse- 
quently adopted by other laboratories, 
for assessing the suitability of a weed 
for control by biological agents, but 
has also pioneered procedures for the 
selection and screening of potential 
agents. Since starting the program at 
Belleville, the section has released 27 
insect species and one species of 
nematode as possible control agents 
for 14 weed species in eight prov- 
inces. Of these, 17 insect species and 
the nematode species have been 
established. As a result, a major 
reduction in stands of St. John's-wort, 
nodding thistle, tansy ragwort, and 
toadflax has been achieved. 

An important area of research has 
been that of plant physiology. Studies 
in this discipline date from the time 
of Bill Chepil and John Cameron, who 
showed that the seeds of wild 
mustard remain viable in the soil for 
many years, and will not germinate 
unless they are in the top 1.3 cm of 
soil. The germination properties of 
wild oat seeds have been continuous- 
ly studied for nearly 25 years, with the 
hope that a procedure can be found 
to break the seed dormancy of this 



38 




above 

January 1981 

Caretaker's residence and the library after 

heavy hoarfrost. 

below 

January 1981 

Main entrance of the office and laboratory 

building. 



most troublesome weed. But despite 
the efforts of Jim Banting, and more 
recently of Andy Hsiao, there seems 
to be no simple solution to this prob- 
lem. Andy Hsiao has also developed 
very sensitive bioassay procedures for 
the determination of trace amounts of 
herbicide residues in soils. 

The excellent weed surveys con- 
ducted by Gordon Thomas have, for 
the first time, provided quantitative 
and statistically reliable data for five 
Canadian provinces. Today, the Weed 



Ecology Section is continuing the 
work of John Cameron and Jack Alex 
on crop losses caused by weeds, and 
is obtaining data to predict losses 
resulting from various densities of 
weed seedlings in a variety of crops. 

Dr. Mclntyre's many years of pains- 
taking research on the effects of 
light, water, and nutrients on plant 
growth has led to new insights into 
plant development. 



The Herbicide Behaviour in the 
Environment Section has done much 
to determine what happens to herbi- 
cides after they have been applied. A 
major project was carried out to eval- 
uate the factors affecting the droplet 
drift potential when herbicides are 
sprayed from different types of equip- 
ment, including aircraft; air monitoring 
studies were conducted to constantly 
measure the minute amounts of herbi- 
cides in the air during the summer 



39 



season. From these and similar exper- 
iments, it was concluded that vapor 
losses from the volatile butyl ester 
formulations are the major cause of 
environmental contamination by 2,4-D, 
and recommendations were made for 
the phasing out of these formulations. 
This work has also resulted in recom- 
mendations that have led to the re- 
duction of herbicidal drift and en- 
sured maximum deposition on the tar- 
get area. Detailed adsorption studies 
have been made, both in the labora- 
tory and under field conditions, to 
assess the movement and leaching 
properties of many herbicides com- 
monly used on the prairies. 

Analytical methods have been de- 
veloped for the routine determination 
in soils of more than 40 different her- 
bicides at the 0.05 ppm level. The soil 
persistence of 30 herbicides used on 
the prairies has been studied under 
field conditions at different locations, 
and the various factors affecting their 
degradation in soils determined. De- 
gradation products of several herbi- 
cides have been isolated from soils 
and identified. Recently, a program to 
investigate the persistence of herbi- 
cides in soils when used in combina- 
tion with other pesticides has been 
started. The program for the deter- 
mination of herbicide residues in 
minor crops has resulted in the devel- 
opment of analytical methodology for 
the extraction and analysis of low 
levels of herbicides in a variety of 
plant materials, and data has been ob- 
tained concerning the residues of 15 
herbicides in a total of seven crops 
from eight provinces. 



The Seed Section's seed program 
which involves the cooperative testing 
with other research stations of new 
varieties of cereal, forage, oilseed, 
and pulse crops has been continuous- 
ly carried out since 1954. During this 
time, several thousand varieties and 
lines have been assessed at sites 
both on and off the station, and the 
work has led to the licensing, seed 
increase, and distribution of 116 varie- 
ties and lines of 21 different crop 
types. Another major project of the 
Seed Section has entailed the task of 
verification, which involves the field 
testing of crop seed to check on the 
genetic purity of the various varieties 
commercially available. 

Since 1962, the excellent research 
conducted at the station has resulted 
in more than 220 scientific publica- 
tions in the literature. So much useful 
information was being obtained that 
the position of information officer 
was created in 1975. Mr. Gayle Honey 
held the position from 1975 to 1978 
and Miss Betty Guild took over from 
1979 to 1980. 

The further success of the Re- 
search Station can be measured by 
the fact that three postgraduate stu- 
dents from the University of Regina 
have completed their M.Sc. thesis 
research at the station under the 
supervision and direction of Dr. Jim 
Banting, Dr. Raj Grover, and Dr. 
Gordon Thomas. Another student, 
supervised by Dr. Peter Harris, was 
awarded a Ph.D. from the University 
of Saskatchewan. The Research Sta- 
tion has also hosted three visiting 
scientists as postdoctoral fellows. 



40 



Acknowledgments 




Many people have contributed to this history, but to the following I am 
particularly indebted: 

Mr. A. Aitken 

Dr. J. D. Banting 

Mr. B. Bosgoed 

Dr. W. Darcovich 

Mrs. J. L. Donegan 

Government of Saskatchewan Archives 

Mrs. D. Hay 

Dr. J. R. Hay 

Mr. H. A. Hunt 

Mr. H. W. Leggett 

Mr. E. V. McCurdy 

Mr. R. N. Mclver 

Mrs. S. Miller 

Mr. E. S. Molberg 

Mr. P. H. Mueller 

Mr. P. I. Myhr 

Dr. P. Pankiw 

Mr. L. A. Patterson 

Dr. D. M. Secoy 

Mr. W. B. Towill 

Miss H. C. Vanstone 

Mr. G. W. Watt 

Mr. H. J. Wiley 



41 



Appendix 



Permanent staff who have worked for at least one year at the Regina Research 
Station. 



Directors 

W. S. Chepil, B.S.A., M.Sc. 
J. Cameron, B.S.A. 
J. R. Foster, B.S.A. 



1931-1936 
1936-1945 
1945-1947 
1948-1953 



H. W. Leggett, B.Sc, B.S.A. 1953-1962 
J. R. Hay, B.S.A., M.S., Ph.D. 1962-1980 



Professional Staff 



W. Darcovich, B.S.A. 
E. S. Molberg, B.S. 
E. A. Hurd, Ph.D. 
J. D. Banting, Ph.D. 
J.F.Alex, Ph.D. 
R. Grover, Ph.D. 
G. R. Boughton, M.Sc. 
G. I. Mclntyre, Ph.D. 
A. B. Masson, M.Sc. 
E. D. Mallough, B.S.A. 
G. G. Bowes, Ph.D. 
A. E.Smith, Ph.D. 



1944-1945 

1947-1974 

1951-1970 

1957-1978 

1962-1968 

1963- 

1964- 

1964- 

1965-1966 

1966-1979 

1966- 

1967- 



K. F. Best, M.Sc. 1970-1978 

J. H. Hunter, Ph.D. 1971- 

G. S. Emmond, M.Sc. 1971-1974 

S. U. Khan, Ph.D. 1971-1973 

P. Harris, Ph.D. 1972- 

M.G. Maw, M.Sc. 1972- 
D. P. Peschken, Dr. Sci. Agr. 1972- 

A. J. Cessna, Ph.D. 1974- 

A. G.Thomas, Ph.D. 1975- 

A. I. Hsiao, Ph.D. 1977- 

L Hume, Ph.D. 1978- 

K. Mortensen, Ph.D. 1981- 



Administrative Officer 

D. I. Gourlay 1973- 



Library Technicians 

J.I. McDonald 1973-1977 



H. C. Vanstone 



1977- 



Information Officers 

G. K. Honey, B.S.A. 1975-1978 



B.C. Guild, B.H.Ec. 



1979-1980 



Office and Clerical Staff 



M. Debenham 




M. J.Robb 


1972-1977 


K. Loree 




P. A. C. Ball 


1974-1976 


E. M. Gilhooly 


1956-1980 


L C. M. Glasser 


1975-1977 


M. Hillyard 


1964-1972 


M.J. Ash 


1976-1979 
1980- 


V. M. A. Barzan 


1965-1973 


G. M. Posehn 


1976-1981 


H. M. Leib 


1965-1972 


A. J. Hepburn 


1977-1980 


D. G. Brailean 


1972-1974 


F. F. Steiner 


1979-1980 


V. A. Chapman 


1972-1974 


A. H. Fleury 


1980- 



42 



Technical and Support Staff 



G. Miller 


1931-1955 


A. N. Dmitruk 


1971-1974 


A.E.Smith 


1943-1959 


B. J. Hayden 


1971- 


W.Wells 


1949-1951 


M. J. McPherson 


1971-1973 


P. H.Mueller 


1951- 


R. A. Ferguson 


1972- 


L. A. Patterson 


1952- 


R. D. Mazurkewich 


1972-1973 


B. Bosgoed 


1954- 


M. M. Molloy 


1972- 


G. W.Watt 


1954- 


R. O. Voroney, B.A. 


1972-1976 


A.Zimmerman 


1954-1976 


E. S. Flett, B.A. 


1973-1979 


K. Strugnell 


1956-1958 


G. O. Dokken 


1973-1975 


G. F. Goertzen 


1956-1972 


J. L. Nerland 


1973-1977 


R. C. McCrystal 


1958-1980 


C. E. Gelowitz 


1974-1978 


L. V. Tebb 


1958-1966 


M. F. Nelson 


1974-1975 


J. Shuya 


1960-1968 


B. R. Pannell 


1974-1975 


A. 0. Beug 


1960-1974 


H.J. Ritchie 


1974-1977 


G. W. Lindenbach 


1961-1973 


T. W. Anderson 


1975-1977 


D. E. Clemence 


1962- 


E. P. Lockwood 


1976-1977 


J. P. Gebhardt 


1962-1966 


M. G. Loydl 


1976-1981 


M.J. Clemence 


1963-1966 


S.J. Novak 


1976- 


L A. Kerr 


1963- 


K. Reid, B.Sc. 


1976-1978 


G. E. McCrystal 


1964-1970 


C. A. Russell 


1976- 


J.Smith-Windsor 


1965-1968 


M. L Aldred 


1977- 


J.G. Mitton 


1966-1977 


S. F. Benjamin 


1977- 


A. B. Harris 


1967-1968 


D. T. Mailhot 


1977- 


S. 0. Mihalicz 


1967-1971 


S. G. Kopp 


1977-1978 


M. A. Schneider 


1967- 


M. E. McGregor, M.Sc. 


1977-1979 


R.F.Wise 


1967- 


J. J.Soroka, B.Sc. 


1978- 


E. L. Wood 


1967- 


A. G. Strachan 


1978- 


A. Fitzpatrick, B.Sc. 


1968-1970 


J. A. Hume, B.Sc. 


1979- 


W. W. Fleming 


1968-1976 


B. W. A. Parks 


1979- 


R. Richards, B.Sc. 


1969-1970 


J. L. Derby 


1981- 






A. C. Dyck 


1981- 



43